The Next Migrant Wave


MANILA – Imagine that you are a farmer. Your crops are withering as weather patterns become more volatile, your well water is too salty to drink, and rice is too expensive to buy at the market. So, you leave home in search of a better life.

Millions of people in vulnerable communities around the world do not have to imagine such a scenario. They are living it now, as an increasingly unpredictable climate takes its toll; and their numbers are likely to soar as the effects of climate change intensify.

Read more.

https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/climate-change-migration-refugees-by-stephen-groff-2016-12

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Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

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Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

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San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

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How Light Emitting Diodes Work – What is a Diode?


BY TOM HARRIS & WESLEY FENLON

At the junction, free electrons from the N-type material fill holes from the P-type material. This creates an insulating layer in the middle of the diode called the depletion zone.

When the negative end of the circuit is hooked up to the N-type layer and the positive end is hooked up to P-type layer, electrons and holes start moving and the depletion zone disappears.

When the positive end of the circuit is hooked up to the N-type layer and the negative end is hooked up to the P-type layer, free electrons collect on one end of the diode and holes collect on the other. The depletion zone gets bigger.
A diode is the simplest sort of semiconductor device. Broadly speaking, a semiconductor is a material with a varying ability to conduct electrical current. Most semiconductors are made of a poor conductor that has had impurities (atoms of another material) added to it. The process of adding impurities is called doping.

In the case of LEDs, the conductor material is typically aluminum-gallium-arsenide (AlGaAs). In pure aluminum-gallium-arsenide, all of the atoms bond perfectly to their neighbors, leaving no free electrons (negatively charged particles) to conduct electric current. In doped material, additional atoms change the balance, either adding free electrons or creating holes where electrons can go. Either of these alterations make the material more conductive.

At the junction, free electrons from the N-type material fill holes from the P-type material. This creates an insulating layer in the middle of the diode called the depletion zone.

A semiconductor with extra electrons is called N-type material, since it has extra negatively charged particles. In N-type material, free electrons move from a negatively charged area to a positively charged area.

A semiconductor with extra holes is called P-type material, since it effectively has extra positively charged particles. Electrons can jump from hole to hole, moving from a negatively charged area to a positively charged area. As a result, the holes themselves appear to move from a positively charged area to a negatively charged area.

A diode consists of a section of N-type material bonded to a section of P-type material, with electrodes on each end. This arrangement conducts electricity in only one direction. When no voltage is applied to the diode, electrons from the N-type material fill holes from the P-type material along the junction between the layers, forming a depletion zone. In a depletion zone, the semiconductor material is returned to its original insulating state — all of the holes are filled, so there are no free electrons or empty spaces for electrons, and charge can’t flow.

To get rid of the depletion zone, you have to get electrons moving from the N-type area to the P-type area and holes moving in the reverse direction. To do this, you connect the N-type side of the diode to the negative end of a circuit and the P-type side to the positive end. The free electrons in the N-type material are repelled by the negative electrode and drawn to the positive electrode. The holes in the P-type material move the other way. When the voltage difference between the electrodes is high enough, the electrons in the depletion zone are boosted out of their holes and begin moving freely again. The depletion zone disappears, and charge moves across the diode.

If you try to run current the other way, with the P-type side connected to the negative end of the circuit and the N-type side connected to the positive end, current will not flow. The negative electrons in the N-type material are attracted to the positive electrode. The positive holes in the P-type material are attracted to the negative electrode. No current flows across the junction because the holes and the electrons are each moving in the wrong direction. The depletion zone increases. (See How Semiconductors Work for more information on the entire process.)

The interaction between electrons and holes in this setup has an interesting side effect — it generates light! In the next issie, we’ll find out exactly why this is.

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Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

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San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

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Open Source Solar Energy: Solar Steam Engine


When we think of solar power, the first thing that many of us think of is generating electricity with photovoltaic panels, which is out of reach of most of our budgets due to the current price of a home PV installation. There are other viable options for home solar power, including solar hot water heaters, but one company is zeroing in on another method of solar power generation: the solar steam engine.

Read more.

https://www.treehugger.com/solar-technology/open-source-solar-energy-zenman-energys-solar-steam-engine.html

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Steam and Cool Air from the Sun.

How about generating steam and providing cooling system using the sun’s energy as fuel? Perhaps a hybrid system coupled to a normal boiler for continuous steam generation.

It now is a common technology.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/11/30/sun-powered-large-scale-heating-and-cooling/

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Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

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Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown



Heat can be recovered from boiler blowdown by using a heat exchanger to preheat boiler makeup water. 

Any boiler with continuous blowdown exceeding 5% of the steam rate is a good candidate for the introduction of blowdown waste heat recovery. Larger energy savings occur with high-pressure boilers. 

Read more.

https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/05/f16/steam10_boiler_blowdown.pdf

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SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

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PLATE & FRAME HEAT EXCHANGERS

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BOILER ROOM ACCESSORIES

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Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

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ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

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THE BOILER HOUSE – A BASIC OVERVIEW OF A STEAM SYSTEM


The simplest boiler of all time.
The boiler is the heart of the steam system. The typical modern packaged boiler is powered by a burner which sends heat into the boiler tubes.

The hot gases from the burner pass backwards and forwards up to 3 times through a series of tubes to gain the maximum transfer of heat through the tube surfaces to the surrounding boiler water. Once the water reaches saturation temperature (the temperature at which it will boil at that pressure) bubbles of steam are produced, which rise to the water surface and burst. The steam is released into the space above, ready to enter the steam system. The stop or crown Valve isolates the boiler and its steam pressure from the process or plant.

Read more.

http://www.wermac.org/steam/steam_part2.html

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Driving Leads. Adding Sales.
View story at Medium.com

HMIs Adapt to Reality on the Plant Floor


TwinCAT HMI software scales the display according to the device. Image courtesy of Beckhoff Automation.
Modern HMIs can offer easy-to-understand graphics, better event response and improved visibility throughout all levels of an enterprise. That leaves industrial plants with big decisions about how to leverage their HMI systems to boost productivity and uptime in the age of mobility, big data and the Industrial Internet of Things.

Read more.

http://insights.globalspec.com/article/2521/hmis-adapt-to-reality-on-the-plant-floor

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Jess C. Gregorio

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Trigeneration improving energy efficiency in Africa



In summary gas engine based trigeneration is a proven, successful technology internationally for delivering cost and carbon savings. Currently gas supplies are restricted to certain parts of the African continent but as this availability grows the potential to use trigeneration technology will increase further. Growing industries, particularly in the data centre sector provide the most exciting opportunities.

Read more.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/trigeneration-improving-energy-efficiency-africa-alexander-marshall

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Waste to Energy Biogas Power Plant

We all know that organic waste would rot and smell. More so with livestock businesses. Residual waste for agro industrials. On a grand scale would be MSW organics that create stench and harmful leachates on our landfills.

This can easily be turned into resources.

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Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

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Do you know the reason why until now there is no clear solution to El Nino and La Nina?



As of today, $13,768,200,000 Bilion USD is needed by mankind ($2 USD per person ) to mineralize the phytoplankton in all our water ecosystems (comprising a total area of 335,258,000 square kilometers) in order to balance the biogeochemical cycles of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur which alone can put an end to our problem of Global Warming aka Climate Change. 

Read more.

https://m.facebook.com/notes/alberto-rojo/do-you-know-the-reason-why-until-now-there-is-no-clear-solution-to-el-nino-and-l/1235912689782655/

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Natural Solution to Water Pollution

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Sales & Marketing

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Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

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How Light Emitting Diodes Work


BY TOM HARRIS & WESLEY FENLON

Though they often come in tiny packages, light emitting diodes produce a large amount of light and are used in an ever-growing list of technologies. See more electronic parts pictures. ©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/JAMERSONG
Light emitting diodes, commonly called LEDs, are real unsung heroes in the electronics world. They do dozens of different jobs and are found in all kinds of devices. Among other things, they form numbers on digital clocks, transmit information from remote controls, light up watches and tell you when your appliances are turned on. Collected together, they can form images on a jumbo television screen or illuminate a traffic light.
 

Basically, LEDs are just tiny light bulbs that fit easily into an electrical circuit. But unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs, they don’t have a filament that will burn out, and they don’t get especially hot. They are illuminated solely by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material, and they last just as long as a standard transistor. The lifespan of an LED surpasses the short life of an incandescent bulb by thousands of hours. Tiny LEDs are already replacing the tubes that light up LCD HDTVs to make dramatically thinner televisions.

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Best Regards,

Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com
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Centre mulls financial aid to Bengal for solar pump storage project


* Curated Information. Flash back story on solar pump.

By PTI 

KOLKATA: The Centre is likely to soon announce a package to help West Bengal set up pumped storage system clubbed with solar facilities with assistance from National Clean Energy Fund. 

“West Bengal has been discussing with us for setting up pumped storage systems along with solar generation facilities and has been asking for our support from the Clean Energy Fund. We have liked the idea and are in the process of preparing a package that would be announced in the next few weeks,” Union power minKOLKATA: The Centre is likely to soon announce a package to help West Bengal set up pumped storage system clubbed with solar facilities with assistance from National Clean Energy Fund. 

“West Bengal has been discussing with us for setting up pumped storage systems along with solar generation facilities and has been asking for our support from the Clean Energy Fund. We have liked the idea and are in the process of preparing a package that would be announced in the next few weeks,” Union power minister Piyush Goyal said at Global Bengal Summit today. 

“This will allow storage of solar power generated during the day that can be wheeled out during the night or at times when required and could be installed in all states,” he said. 

West Bengal has already installed a 1,000 MW pumped storage facility and has drawn up plans of setting up additional pumped storage system along with solar generation facilities at an estimated investment of about Rs 17,000 crore. 

The new project will entail harnessing solar power to pump water for generation of power during peak time and for the state was seeking the clean energy pump for it, officials said. 

The proposal is to set up pumped storage system at Turga in Purulia district and cost about Rs 11,000 crore and the state government has asked the Centre to fund 40 per cent of this project cost from the clean energy fund; another Rs 6,000 crore will be required to set up a 1,200 mw solar capacity at the same location, state power minister Manish Gupta said. 
Goyal, who was in Kolkata to attend the Global Bengal Summit, said Bengal is on the verge of attaining 100 per cent electrification under ‘Sobar Ghore Alo’ (electricity for all) scheme. 

The state is also in talks with the Centre for joining Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojna or UDAY, he said. 

On UDAY, Goyal said, “We have urged West Bengal to join the scheme and it would help the state reduce costs. Nationally, UDAY can save close to Rs 1.8 lakh crore and all of it would be passed on to consumers.” 
Gupta said the power sector in Bengal is not ailing as has been the case with some other states. “However, joining UDAY would help reduce our interest costs to around 8 per cent which is close to 11 per cent now. We will discuss with the centre,” he said.ister Piyush Goyal said at Global Bengal Summit today. 

“This will allow storage of solar power generated during the day that can be wheeled out during the night or at times when required and could be installed in all states,” he said. 

West Bengal has already installed a 1,000 MW pumped storage facility and has drawn up plans of setting up additional pumped storage system along with solar generation facilities.

The new project will entail harnessing solar power to pump water for generation of power during peak time and for the state was seeking the clean energy pump for it, officials said. 

The proposal is to set up pumped storage system at Turga in Purulia district and the state government has asked the Centre to fund 40 per cent of this project cost from the clean energy fund; another amountcrore will be required to set up a 1,200 mw solar capacity at the same location, state power minister Manish Gupta said. 

Goyal, who was in Kolkata to attend the Global Bengal Summit, said Bengal is on the verge of attaining 100 per cent electrification under ‘Sobar Ghore Alo’ (electricity for all) scheme. 

The state is also in talks with the Centre for joining Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojna or UDAY, he said. 

On UDAY, Goyal said, “We have urged West Bengal to join the scheme and it would help the state reduce costs. Nationally, UDAY can save close to Rs 1.8 lakh crore and all of it would be passed on to consumers.” 

Gupta said the power sector in Bengal is not ailing as has been the case with some other states. “However, joining UDAY would help reduce our interest costs to around 8 per cent which is close to 11 per cent now. We will discuss with the centre,” he said.

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For Inquiry and Request for Quotation, email me at: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Best Regards,

Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com
For more news and info on solar pumping, check out techno blogsite below, subscribe for auto updates.

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