Op-ed: Being Alarmed Is Not the Same as Being an Alarmist


Curated Information
When the evidence clearly suggests that we’re heading toward a catastrophe, scientists shouldn’t hesitate to make their feelings known to the public. So, at what point should scientists begin to publicly worry about the environment? 

Scientists are trained to report their findings in a disinterested manner. The aim is to be as objective as possible, and this means bracketing one’s feelings in favor of the facts.

But what happens when the evidence suggests that humanity is racing towards a global, irreversible disaster? What happens when the results of scientific inquiry clearly warrant activism in favor of a particular law or policy?

Read more.

https://futureoflife.org/2016/08/01/op-ed-alarmed-not-alarmist/

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We have designed, built, and commissioned more than 400 biogas power plants everywhere in the world.

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/planet-international-project-track-record.pdf

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Introducing the terrifying mathematics of the Anthropocene


Fossil fuel has turned us into force of nature.
*curated information—

Here are some surprising facts about humans’ effect on planet Earth. We have made enough concrete to create an exact replica of Earth 2mm thick. We have produced enough plastic to wrap Earth in clingfilm. We are creating “technofossils”, a new term for congealed human-made materials – plastics and concretes – that will be around for tens of millions of years.

But it is the scale that humans have altered Earth’s life support system that is the most concerning.

Read more.

http://theconversation.com/introducing-the-terrifying-mathematics-of-the-anthropocene-70749

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Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power?

We do turnkey biogas power plant projects. We can setup and commission your W2E infrastructure. Find you a local or an international project financing window. Or maybe a local JV business partner for big project plans. We are particularly looking for that one single deal of a clustered or multiple biogas power plant construction project to finance.

We have designed, built, and commissioned more than 400 biogas power plants everywhere in the world.

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/planet-international-project-track-record.pdf

If interested and would like to tap our services, kindly fill up questionnaire below and email back. We will assess your substrate sustainability and see if a biogas power plant is right for you.

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/msw-w2e-project-questionnaire.pdf

Danke!

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

PlanET Biogas GmbH Company Profile

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Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

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Biogas company aims to heat homes with the power of panda poop


*curated information…

BY LINY LAMBERINKPOSTED APR 19, 2016 5:46 PM EDTLAST UPDATED APR 19, 2016 AT 8:49 PM EDT

Biogas company aims to heat homes with the power of panda poop

There’s always been something smelly east of Meadowvale Road.

But now, the stench is getting sweeter.

ZooShare – a renewable energy co-operative – broke ground Tuesday on North America’s first ever zoo-based biogas plant.

The facility is being built on three hectares of land across the street from the Toronto Zoo and is taking over its composting facility, using the 3,000 tons of waste the animals produce each year to generate power.

Poop will be mixed with 14,000 tons of local grocery store waste, and will generate energy to power 250 homes for a year.

“[It’s] really a big concrete stomach,” says ZooShare Executive Director Daniel Bida, describing how the biogas plant will operate.

“If you feed organic waste into this concrete stomach, over a period of about 30 days, methane will be produced that can be used to generate electricity.”

Bida says burning the methane gas will create some emissions, but adds this is greatly offset by the positive impact of diverting waste from the landfill, where it would produce methane gas that would be released into the atmosphere regardless.

According to ZooShare’s website, the biogas plant’s operations will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the equivalent of 10,000 tons of C02 annually. And afterwards, the waste can still be used as a nutrient-rich form of fertilizer.

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Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power or have W2E projects?

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Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

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Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com
We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/
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The Concept of Biorefinery


*curated information…

By Salman Zafar

A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and value-added chemicals from biomass. Biorefinery is analogous to today’s petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and products from petroleum. By producing several products, a biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates, therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock.

A biorefinery could, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol. At the same time, it can generate electricity and process heat, through CHP technology, for its own use and perhaps enough for sale of electricity to the local utility. The high value products increase profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet energy needs, and the power production helps to lower energy costs and reduce GHG emissions from traditional power plant facilities.

Biorefinery Platforms

There are several platforms which can be employed in a biorefinery with the major ones being the sugar platform and the thermochemical platform (also known as syngas platform).

Sugar platform biorefineries breaks down biomass into different types of component sugars for fermentation or other biological processing into various fuels and chemicals. On the other hand, thermochemical biorefineries transform biomass into synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) or pyrolysis oil.

The thermochemical biomass conversion process is complex, and uses components, configurations, and operating conditions that are more typical of petroleum refining. Biomass is converted into syngas, and syngas is converted into an ethanol-rich mixture. However, syngas created from biomass contains contaminants such as tar and sulphur that interfere with the conversion of the syngas into products. These contaminants can be removed by tar-reforming catalysts and catalytic reforming processes. This not only cleans the syngas, it also creates more of it, improving process economics and ultimately cutting the cost of the resulting ethanol.

Plus Points

Biorefineries can help in utilizing the optimum energy potential of organic wastes and may also resolve the problems of waste management and GHGs emissions. Biomass wastes can be converted, through appropriate enzymatic/chemical treatment, into either gaseous or liquid fuels. The pre-treatment processes involved in biorefining generate products like paper-pulp, HFCS, solvents, acetate, resins, laminates, adhesives, flavour chemicals, activated carbon, fuel enhancers, undigested sugars etc. which generally remain untapped in the traditional processes. The suitability of this process is further enhanced from the fact that it can utilize a variety of biomass resources, whether plant-derived or animal-derived.

Future Perspectives

The concept of biorefinery is still in early stages at most places in the world. Problems like raw material availability, feasibility in product supply chain, scalability of the model are hampering its development at commercial-scales. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of USA is leading the front in biorefinery research with path-breaking discoveries and inventions. Although the technology is still in nascent stages, but it holds the key to the optimum utilization of wastes and natural resources that humans have always tried to achieve. The onus now lies on governments and corporate sector to incentivize or finance the research and development in this highly promising field.

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Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power or have W2E projects?

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Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

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Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/

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Biochemical Conversion of Biomass


*curated information…

By Salman Zafar

Biochemical conversion of biomass involves use of bacteria, microorganisms and enzymes to breakdown biomass into gaseous or liquid fuels, such as biogas or bioethanol. The most popular biochemical technologies are anaerobic digestion (or biomethanation) and fermentation. Anaerobic digestion is a series of chemical reactions during which organic material is decomposed through the metabolic pathways of naturally occurring microorganisms in an oxygen depleted environment. Biomass wastes can also yield liquid fuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, which can be used to replace petroleum-based fuels.

Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion is the natural biological process which stabilizes organic waste in the absence of air and transforms it into biofertilizer and biogas. Anaerobic digestion is a reliable technology for the treatment of wet, organic waste. Organic waste from various sources is biochemically degraded in highly controlled, oxygen-free conditions circumstances resulting in the production of biogas which can be used to produce both electricity and heat. Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion. This includes biodegradable waste materials such as municipal solid waste, animal manure, poultry litter, food wastes, sewage and industrial wastes.

An anaerobic digestion plant produces two outputs, biogas and digestate, both can be further processed or utilized to produce secondary outputs. Biogas can be used for producing electricity and heat, as a natural gas substitute and also a transportation fuel. A combined heat and power plant system (CHP) not only generates power but also produces heat for in-house requirements to maintain desired temperature level in the digester during cold season. In Sweden, the compressed biogas is used as a transportation fuel for cars and buses. Biogas can also be upgraded and used in gas supply networks.


Working of Anaerobic Digestion Process

Digestate can be further processed to produce liquor and a fibrous material. The fiber, which can be processed into compost, is a bulky material with low levels of nutrients and can be used as a soil conditioner or a low level fertilizer. A high proportion of the nutrients remain in the liquor, which can be used as a liquid fertilizer.

Biofuel Production

A variety of fuels can be produced from waste resources including liquid fuels, such as ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels, such as hydrogen and methane. The resource base for biofuel production is composed of a wide variety of forestry and agricultural resources, industrial processing residues, and municipal solid and urban wood residues. Globally, biofuels are most commonly used to power vehicles, heat homes, and for cooking.

The largest potential feedstock for ethanol is lignocellulosic biomass wastes, which includes materials such as agricultural residues (corn stover, crop straws and bagasse), herbaceous crops (alfalfa, switchgrass), short rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes (municipal and industrial). Bioethanol production from these feedstocks could be an attractive alternative for disposal of these residues. Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security.

Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is produced mainly via biochemical routes. The three major steps involved are pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. Biomass is pretreated to improve the accessibility of enzymes. After pretreatment, biomass undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis for conversion of polysaccharides into monomer sugars, such as glucose and xylose. Subsequently, sugars are fermented to ethanol by the use of different microorganisms.

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Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power or have W2E projects?

We do local turnkey biogas power plant projects. We can build what you envision with no less than the state-of-the-art technology that you will require.

Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/biogas-faq/

Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/

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A Primer on Waste-to-Energy


//curated information.

By Salman Zafar

Waste-to-Energy is the use of modern combustion and biochemical technologies to recover energy, usually in the form of electricity and steam, from urban wastes. These new technologies can reduce the volume of the original waste by 90%, depending upon composition and use of outputs.

Energy is the driving force for development in all countries of the world. The increasing clamor for energy and satisfying it with a combination of conventional and renewable resources is a big challenge. Accompanying energy problems in different parts of the world, another problem that is assuming critical proportions is that of urban waste accumulation. The quantity of waste produced all over the world amounted to more than 12 billion tonnes in 2006, with estimates of up to 13 billion tonnes in 2011. The rapid increase in population coupled with changing lifestyle and consumption patterns is expected to result in an exponential increase in waste generation of upto 18 billion tonnes by year 2020.

Waste generation rates are affected by socio-economic development, degree of industrialization, and climate. Generally, the greater the economic prosperity and the higher percentage of urban population, the greater the amount of solid waste produced. Reduction in the volume and mass of solid waste is a crucial issue especially in the light of limited availability of final disposal sites in many parts of the world. Millions of tonnes of waste are generated each year with the vast majority disposed of in open fields or burnt wantonly.

The main categories of waste-to-energy technologies are physical technologies, which process waste to make it more useful as fuel; thermal technologies, which can yield heat, fuel oil, or syngas from both organic and inorganic wastes; and biological technologies, in which bacterial fermentation is used to digest organic wastes to yield fuel.

The three principal methods of thermochemical conversion are combustion in excess air, gasification in reduced air, and pyrolysis in the absence of air. The most common technique for producing both heat and electrical energy from wastes is direct combustion. Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration systems, ranging from small-scale technology to large grid-connected facilities, provide significantly higher efficiencies than systems that only generate electricity.

Biochemical processes, like anaerobic digestion, can also produce clean energy in the form of biogas which can be converted to power and heat using a gas engine. In addition, wastes can also yield liquid fuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, which can be used to replace petroleum-based fuels. Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from grasses, wood chips and agricultural residues by biochemical route using heat, pressure, chemicals and enzymes to unlock the sugars in biomass wastes.

Waste-to-energy plants offer two important benefits of environmentally safe waste management and disposal, as well as the generation of clean electric power. The growing use of waste-to-energy as a method to dispose of solid and liquid wastes and generate power has greatly reduced environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management, including emissions of greenhouse gases.

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Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

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Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

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Biomass as Energy Resources


//curated information…

By Salman Zafar

biomass_feedstockBiomass resources include plant and animal material such as wood from forests, material left over from agricultural and forestry processes, and organic industrial, human and animal wastes. The energy contained in biomass originally came from the sun. Through photosynthesis carbon dioxide in the air is transformed into other carbon containing molecules (e.g. sugars, starches and cellulose) in plants. The chemical energy that is stored in plants and animals (animals eat plants or other animals) or in their waste is called bio-energy. Biomass comes from a variety of sources which include:

Wood from natural forests and woodlands

Forestry plantations

Forestry residues

Agricultural residues such as straw, stover, cane trash and green agricultural wastes

Agro-industrial wastes, such as sugarcane bagasse and rice husk

Animal wastes

Industrial wastes, such as black liquor from paper manufacturing

Sewage

Municipal solid wastes (MSW)

Food processing wastes

Biomass energy projects provide major business opportunities, environmental benefits, and rural development. Feedstocks can be obtained from a wide array of sources without jeopardizing the food and feed supply, forests, and biodiversity in the world.

Agricultural Residues
Crop residues encompasses all agricultural wastes such as bagasse, straw, stem, stalk, leaves, husk, shell, peel, pulp, stubble, etc. Large quantities of crop residues are produced annually worldwide, and are vastly underutilised. Rice produces both straw and rice husks at the processing plant which can be conveniently and easily converted into energy. Significant quantities of biomass remain in the fields in the form of cob when maize is harvested which can be converted into energy. Sugar cane harvesting leads to harvest residues in the fields while processing produces fibrous bagasse, both of which are good sources of energy. Harvesting and processing of coconuts produces quantities of shell and fibre that can be utilized.

Current farming practice is usually to plough these residues back into the soil, or they are burnt, left to decompose, or grazed by cattle. These residues could be processed into liquid fuels or thermochemical processed to produce electricity and heat. Agricultural residues are characterized by seasonal availability and have characteristics that differ from other solid fuels such as wood, charcoal, char briquette. The main differences are the high content of volatile matter and lower density and burning time.

Animal Waste
There are a wide range of animal wastes that can be used as sources of biomass energy. The most common sources are animal and poultry manures. In the past this waste was recovered and sold as a fertilizer or simply spread onto agricultural land, but the introduction of tighter environmental controls on odour and water pollution means that some form of waste management is now required, which provides further incentives for waste-to-energy conversion.

The most attractive method of converting these waste materials to useful form is anaerobic digestion which gives biogas that can be used as a fuel for internal combustion engines, to generate electricity from small gas turbines, burnt directly for cooking, or for space and water heating.

Forestry Residues
Forestry residues are generated by operations such as thinning of plantations, clearing for logging roads, extracting stem-wood for pulp and timber, and natural attrition. Harvesting may occur as thinning in young stands, or cutting in older stands for timber or pulp that also yields tops and branches usable for biomass energy. Harvesting operations usually remove only 25 to 50 percent of the volume, leaving the residues available as biomass for energy.

Stands damaged by insects, disease or fire are additional sources of biomass. Forest residues normally have low density and fuel values that keep transport costs high, and so it is economical to reduce the biomass density in the forest itself.

Wood Wastes
Wood processing industries primarily include sawmilling, plywood, wood panel, furniture, building component, flooring, particle board, moulding, jointing and craft industries. Wood wastes generally are concentrated at the processing factories, e.g. plywood mills and sawmills. The amount of waste generated from wood processing industries varies from one type industry to another depending on the form of raw material and finished product.

Generally, the waste from wood industries such as saw millings and plywood, veneer and others are sawdust, off-cuts, trims and shavings. Sawdust arise from cutting, sizing, re-sawing, edging, while trims and shaving are the consequence of trimming and smoothing of wood. In general, processing of 1,000 kg of wood in the furniture industries will lead to waste generation of almost half (45 %), i.e. 450 kg of wood. Similarly, when processing 1,000 kg of wood in sawmill, the waste will amount to more than half (52 %), i.e. 520 kg wood.

Industrial Wastes
The food industry produces a large number of residues and by-products that can be used as biomass energy sources. These waste materials are generated from all sectors of the food industry with everything from meat production to confectionery producing waste that can be utilised as an energy source.

Solid wastes include peelings and scraps from fruit and vegetables, food that does not meet quality control standards, pulp and fibre from sugar and starch extraction, filter sludges and coffee grounds. These wastes are usually disposed of in landfill dumps.

Liquid wastes are generated by washing meat, fruit and vegetables, blanching fruit and vegetables, pre-cooking meats, poultry and fish, cleaning and processing operations as well as wine making.

These waste waters contain sugars, starches and other dissolved and solid organic matter. The potential exists for these industrial wastes to be anaerobically digested to produce biogas, or fermented to produce ethanol, and several commercial examples of waste-to-energy conversion already exist.

Pulp and paper industry is considered to be one of the highly polluting industries and consumes large amount of energy and water in various unit operations. The wastewater discharged by this industry is highly heterogeneous as it contains compounds from wood or other raw materials, processed chemicals as well as compound formed during processing. Black liquor can be judiciously utilized for production of biogas using anaerobic UASB technology.

Municipal Solid Wastes and Sewage
Millions of tonnes of household waste are collected each year with the vast majority disposed of in open fields. The biomass resource in MSW comprises the putrescibles, paper and plastic and averages 80% of the total MSW collected. Municipal solid waste can be converted into energy by direct combustion, or by natural anaerobic digestion in the engineered landfill. At the landfill sites the gas produced by the natural decomposition of MSW (approximately 50% methane and 50% carbon dioxide) is collected from the stored material and scrubbed and cleaned before feeding into internal combustion engines or gas turbines to generate heat and power. The organic fraction of MSW can be anaerobically stabilized in a high-rate digester to obtain biogas for electricity or steam generation.

Sewage is a source of biomass energy that is very similar to the other animal wastes. Energy can be extracted from sewage using anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. The sewage sludge that remains can be incinerated or undergo pyrolysis to produce more biogas.

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Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power or have W2E projects?

We do local turnkey biogas power plant projects. We can build what you envision with no less than the state-of-the-art technology that you will require.

Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/biogas-faq/

Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

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An Introduction to Biomass Energy


//curated information…

By Salman Zafar

Biomass is the material derived from plants that use sunlight to grow which include plant and animal material such as wood from forests, material left over from agricultural and forestry processes, and organic industrial, human and animal wastes. Biomass comes from a variety of sources which include:
Wood from natural forests and woodlands

Forestry plantations

Forestry residues

Agricultural residues such as straw, stover, cane trash and green agricultural wastes

Agro-industrial wastes, such as sugarcane bagasse and rice husk

Animal wastes

Industrial wastes, such as black liquor from paper manufacturing

Sewage

Municipal solid wastes (MSW)

Food processing wastes

In nature, if biomass is left lying around on the ground it will break down over a long period of time, releasing carbon dioxide and its store of energy slowly. By burning biomass its store of energy is released quickly and often in a useful way. So converting biomass into useful energy imitates the natural processes but at a faster rate.

Biomass can be transformed into clean energy and/or fuels by a variety of technologies, ranging from conventional combustion process to emerging biofuels technology. Besides recovery of substantial energy, these technologies can lead to a substantial reduction in the overall waste quantities requiring final disposal, which can be better managed for safe disposal in a controlled manner while meeting the pollution control standards.

Biomass waste-to-energy conversion reduces greenhouse gas emissions in two ways. Heat and electrical energy is generated which reduces the dependence on power plants based on fossil fuels. The greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced by preventing methane emissions from landfills. Moreover, biomass energy plants are highly efficient in harnessing the untapped sources of energy from biomass resources.

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Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/biogas-faq/

Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com
We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/
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Thermal Conversion of Tannery Wastes


//curated information,

By Salman Zafar, BioEnergy Consult

tannery-wastesTanneries generate considerable quantities of sludge, shavings, trimmings, hair, buffing dusts and other general wastes and can consist of up to 70% of hide weight processed. Thermal technologies, gasification in particular, by virtue of chemically reducing conditions, provides a viable alternative thermal treatment for Chrome containing materials, and generates a chrome (III) containing ash. This ash has significant commercial value as it can be reconstituted.

All of the wastes created by the tannery can be gasified following pre-treatment methods such as maceration, drying and subsequent densification or briquetting. A combined drying and gasification process could eliminate solid waste, whilst providing a combustible gas as a tax-exempt renewable energy source, which the tannery can directly reuse. Gasification trials have illustrated that up to 70% of the intrinsic energy value of the wastes currently disposed can be recovered as “synthesis gas” energy.

Gasification technology has the potential to provide significant cost benefits in terms of power generation and waste disposal, and increase sustainability within the leather industry. The gasification process converts any carbon-containing material into a combustible gas comprised primarily of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane, which can be used as a fuel to generate electricity and heat.

A wide range of tannery wastes can be macerated, flash dried, densified and gasified to generate a clean syngas for reuse in boilers or other Combined Heat and Power systems. As a result up to 70% of the intrinsic energy value of the waste can be recovered as syngas, with up to 60% of this being surplus to process drying requirements so can be recovered for on-site boiler or thermal energy recovery uses.

A proprietary technology has been in commercial operation at a tanyard on the West Coast of Norway since mid 2001. The process employs gasification-and-plasma-cracking and offer the capability of turning the tannery waste problem to a valorising source that may add values to the plant owner in terms of excessive energy and ferrochrome, a harmless alloy that is widely used by the metallurgical industry. The process leaves no ashes but a non-leaching slag that is useful for civil engineering works, and, hence, no residues for landfill disposal

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Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/biogas-faq/

Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/

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Wastes Generation in Tanneries


//curated information.

By Salman Zafar, BioEnergy Consult

Wastes originate from all stages of leather making, such as fine leather particles, residues from various chemical discharges and reagents from different waste liquors comprising of large pieces of leather cuttings, trimmings and gross shavings, fleshing residues, solid hair debris and remnants of paper bags.

Tanning refers to the process by which collagen fibers in a hide react with a chemical agent (tannin, alum or other chemicals). However, the term leather tanning also commonly refers to the entire leather-making process. Hides and skins have the ability to absorb tannic acid and other chemical substances that prevent them from decaying, make them resistant to wetting, and keep them supple and durable. The flesh side of the hide or skin is much thicker and softer. The three types of hides and skins most often used in leather manufacture are from cattle, sheep, and pigs.

Out of 1000 kg of raw hide, nearly 850 kg is generated as solid wastes in leather processing. Only 150 Kg of the raw material is converted in to leather. A typical tannery generate huge amount of waste:

Fleshing: 56-60%
Chrome shaving, chrome splits and buffing dust: 35-40%
Skin trimming: 5-7%
Hair: 2-5%

Over 80 per cent of the organic pollution load in BOD terms emanates from the beamhouse (pre-tanning); much of this comes from degraded hide/skin and hair matter. During the tanning process at least 300 kg of chemicals (lime, salt etc.) are added per ton of hides. Excess of non-used salts will appear in the wastewater.

Because of the changing pH, these compounds can precipitate and contribute to the amount of solid waste or suspended solids. Every tanning process step, with the exception of finishing operations, produces wastewater. An average of 35 m3 is produced per ton of raw hide. The wastewater is made up of high concentration of salts, chromium, ammonia, dye and solvent chemicals etc.

A large amount of waste generated by tanneries is discharged in natural water bodies directly or indirectly through two open drains without any treatment. The water in the low lying areas in developing countries, like India and Bangladesh, is polluted in such a degree that it has become unsuitable for public uses. In summer when the rate of decomposition of the waste is higher, serious air pollution is caused in residential areas by producing intolerable obnoxious odours.

Tannery wastewater and solid wastes often find their way into surface water, where toxins are carried downstream and contaminate water used for bathing, cooking, swimming, and irrigation. Chromium waste can also seep into the soil and contaminate groundwater systems that provide drinking water for nearby communities. In addition, contamination in water can build up in aquatic animals, which are a common source of food.

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🕶Biogas Power AdPlugIT

Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power or have W2E projects?

We do local turnkey biogas power plant projects. We offer expertise and experience of one of the top ten biogas engineering and construction company in the world- a Germany based corporation with over 400 installed biogas power plants worldwide. 

We are looking forward to serve you in converting your waste into resources.

Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/biogas-faq/

Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/

Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines

Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/