Difference Between DCS and SCADA



DCS and SCADA are monitoring and control mechanisms that are used in industrial installations to keep track and control of the processes and equipment; to ensure that everything goes smoothly, and none of the equipment work outside the specified limits. The most significant difference between the two is their general design. DCS, or Data Control System, is process oriented, as it focuses more on the processes in each step of the operation. SCADA, or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, focuses more on the acquisition and collation of data for reference of the personnel who are charged with keeping track of the operation.

DCS is process state driven, while SCADA is even driven. DCS does all its tasks in a sequential manner, and events are not recorded until it is scanned by the station. In contrast, SCADA is event driven. It does not call scans on a regular basis, but waits for an event or for a change in value in one component to trigger certain actions. SCADA is a bit more advantageous in this aspect, as it lightens the load of the host. Changes are also recorded much earlier, as an event is logged as soon as a value changes state.

In terms of applications, DCS is the system of choice for installations that are limited to a small locale, like a single factory or plant, while SCADA is preferred when the entire system is spread across a much larger geographic location, examples of which would be oil wells spread out in a large field. Part of the reason for this is the fact that DCS needs to be always connected to the I/O of the system, while SCADA is expected to perform even when field communications fail for some time. SCADA does this by keeping a record of all current values, so that even if the base station is unable to extract new information from a remote location, it would still be able to present the last recorded values.

Summary:

 

1. DCS is process oriented, while SCADA is data acquisition oriented.

2. DCS is process state driven, while SCADA is event driven.

3. DCS is commonly used to handle operations on a single locale, while SCADA is preferred for applications that are spread over a wide geographic location.

4. DCS operator stations are always connected to its I/O, while SCADA is expected to operate despite failure of field communications.

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Difference between Dcs and Plc


In the manufacturing process, there are two types of control that can be employed. One is the Programmed Logic Controller, otherwise commonly referred to as PLC, and the other is the DCS, or the Distributed Control System. The Programmed Logic Control system is a standalone control and is developed to perform a specific task. The DCS, on the other hand, functions as a control system that can work through various levels for the end result to be achieved. This means that the DCS can be formed by several levels of PLC’s in creating a fully functional system.

Traditionally, the formulation of DCS’s was extremely expensive and was only recommended for batch processing industries, as they had various levels of production before the final product was delivered. This concept holds today, albeit with a few changes that have occurred along the way.

Multiple PLC and DCS solutions have been developed through time to ease automation and entire control processes. One of the PLC solutions developed was coupled with HMI (Human Machine Interface)/SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) which allows for user interaction. Furthermore, PLC is a management tool that has a rather analogous control function for process management. PLC ensures that the ladder logic is maintained. This is the preferred solution for use for Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and special project needs. For user interaction, a HMI/SCADA panes must be provided.

For slightly larger processes, a DCS is preferred. This allows for easier management of processes that are beyond the scope of a single PLC management. A small DCS management is much better when compared to traditional DCS management systems, largely due to a smaller footprint. Also the system has a diagnostics database that lowers ownership costs.

For large processes a large DCS solution is recommended. This is a distributed control that has numerous features to help in meeting the production requirements. Functions such as collecting controlling output, alarming, processing, and data collection all are managed in the DCS system. There are specific measures instituted in the DCS solution to handle each process. With the entire system synchronized no single system failure can lead to the failure of another system of a different part.

The geographical distribution of the area is also a factor when deciding between PLC and DCS. If the control functions have been distributed over different geographic locations, use of PLC or even DCS can be considered, depending on the needs. Having different processes individually can help a single part of the system in its management, especially when failure arises, since the failure of a given system does not mean that the entire process should come to a grinding halt.
 

The control algorithms in DCS ought to be advanced, as the loop between the measured and manipulated input handles the entire process. When the word ‘system’ is mentioned in DCS, it means that one process is linked to the rest and there are different physical processes spread over a wide area. To ensure that the PLC control is working as expected, there should be two processes running in the PLC, one controlling the process in question, while the other safeguards the process. Smaller PLC’s can have the same unit running both the control and safeguarding processes.

Summary

PLC is mainly used as a controller of processes and mainly comes as a standalone program.

DCS is mainly used as a control system and will feature different processes which can be made up of merged PLC’s.

Both DCS and PLC can be configured or reconfigured.

DCS is a relatively large system while the PLC is a small system.

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Differences Between SCADA and HMI


SCADA vs HMI

In large industrial structures, it is impractical or even impossible to control the individual parts of the system because, in most installations, the parts are often located very far from each other. Thus the need arises to monitor and control them with SCADA and HMI. The main difference between SCADA and HMI is their scope. HMI is actually just a part of the larger SCADA system. Without SCADA, the HMI would be pretty much useless.

“SCADA” stands for “Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition,” which is an integrated system that is used to control and monitor the workings of the individual parts of the plant. The SCADA often controls pumps, fans, and other machinery along with their other characteristics. The controlling mechanisms are electronic circuits known as programmable logic circuits or PLCs. The PLC controls the machine as well as polls the sensors for data. The data is then sent to the control room. In the control room, the operator needs to make sense of the data as well as issue commands like turning the machines on or off. This is where the HMI, or Human Machine Interface, comes in. The HMI is usually a graphical layout of the entire system with gauges, lights, and controls situated in the corresponding locations of the machines. The gauges show the normal range of operation as well as the abnormal range so that the operator knows if the equipment is within the accepted operating range. The lights may indicate if the machine is working or not, as well as the occurrence of faults. The controls send the instructions to the PLC, which in turn control the machine.

 

The SCADA is the entirety of the system that controls and monitors the operations of a plant. But in general operation, most of its parts are not really to be dealt with on a regular basis. The majority of the time, only the HMI is visible and interacted with. This makes people think that SCADA and HMI are the same or are different implementations of the same system, when one is just an integral part of the other.

Summary:

The HMI is just a part of the SCADA.

SCADA is a complete control system while the HMI is what the human operator works with.

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Difference Between PLC and RTU


by http://www.differencebetween.net

PLC vs RTU
PLCs and RTUs are both electronic devices; their functionalities overlap with each other. RTCs are sold with PLC-like features, and PLCs are sold with RTC-like features. Many vendors sell proprietary alternatives and different associated environments to run these programs since the industry made the functional language running RTUs and PLCs standard.

RTU
“RTU” stands for “Remote Terminal Units.” They are also referred to as “Remote Telemetry Units.” An RTU is an electronic device which is controlled by a microprocessor. The main function of an RTU is to interface the SCADA to the objects present physically. “SCADA” stands for “supervisory control and data acquisition.” The interface between objects and SCADA takes place by using supervisory system messages to control all the objects connected and by transmitting to the system all the telemetry data.

The RTU does not support control loops and control algorithms. The functionality of RTUs and PLCs has started overlapping because of cheaper hardware, and thus the industry standardized the language for programs on which RTUs run. IEC 61131-3 has been standardized.

It is different from a PLC because it is considered more suitable as it uses wireless communication and is suited to a wider geographical telemetry whereas PLCs are better with local controls, for example, production lines or plants, etc. In plants and production lines, the system is more based on physical media. IEC 61131-3 is used more by PLCs, and RTUs use other proprietary tools.

PLC
“PLC” stands for “programmable logic controller.” PLCs are digital computers. They are used mainly for automating the electromechanical processes, for example, assembly lines in factories, light fixtures, amusement rides, etc. They are specially designed for output arrangements and multiple inputs. They have electrical noise immunity, vibration and impact resistance, varied temperature ranges, etc.

Some of the functions of PLCs are; process control, relay control, motion control, networking, etc. They have started matching the desktop computers in storing, processing, communicating, and handling data.

Summary:

“RTU” stands for “Remote Terminal Units.” It is also referred to as “Remote Telemetry Unit”; “PLC” stands for “programmable logic controller.”

RTUs are considered more suitable for wider geographical telemetry, the reason being that RTUs use wireless communication; PLCs are more suitable for local control, for example, for assembly lines in factories, light fixtures, amusement rides, etc. PLCs are specially designed for output arrangements and multiple inputs. They have electrical noise immunity, vibration and impact resistance, varied temperature ranges, etc.

IEC 61131-3 is used more by PLCs, and RTUs use other alternative proprietary tools.

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Why Use Gateway RTU in Remote SCADA View


The very important function of a Gateway RTU in our remote SCADA viewing is to compress a lot of diversified field signals into a single communication means- long distance cable channel or radio.

It provides a more real time controller for remote units/equipments which involve time/mission critical data transmission tasks. SCADA is normally classified as non-real time control system and is just a supervisory system.

Also, the TeleSCADA are normally indeterministic and involve comparably long latency time delays and communication channel instability.

Having an RTU host a complete stand alone program will keep remote monitoring functioning safely, adequately, and reliably even if it lost links.

In a distrbuted system, nodes are created throghout the network so as to cater the fault in communication links. For such a system, the RTU is responsible to collect data from field devices or itself and store it till it is allowed to transfer the same towards the master station.

To further clarify the above, field information like status and values or command data request needs the RTU to be there to translate what is received through a SCADA protocol (DNP3,IEC101/104 ….) and converts it to physical reality information. RTU therefore is mainly a “translator” of protocol language into Field language and vice versa. This is especially important to make long distance data highway fast and reliable.

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PLC info Series 001 – Introduction to PLC


Introduction to PLCs

What does ‘PLC’ mean?

A PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) is an industrial computer used to monitor inputs, and depending upon their state make decisions based on its program or logic, to control (turn on/off) its outputs to automate a machine or a process.

NEMA defines a PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER as:

“A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions by implementing specific functions such as logic sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to control, through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of machines or processes”.

Traditional PLC Applications

*In automated system, PLC controller is usually the central part of a process control system.

*To run more complex processes it is possible to connect more PLC controllers to a central computer.

Disadvantages of PLC control

– Too much work required in connecting wires.

– Difficulty with changes or replacements.

– Difficulty in finding errors; requiring skillful work force.

– When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long.

Advantages of PLC control

* Rugged and designed to withstand vibrations, temperature, humidity, and noise.

* Have interfacing for inputs and outputs already inside the controller.

* Easily programmed and have an easily understood programming language.

Major Types of Industrial Control Systems

Industrial control system or ICS comprise of different types of control systems that are currently in operation in various industries. These control systems include PLC, SCADA and DCS and various others:

PLC

They are based on the Boolean logic operations whereas some models use timers and some have continuous control. These devices are computer based and are used to control various process and equipments within a facility. PLCs control the components in the DCS and SCADA systems but they are primary components in smaller control configurations.

DCS

Distributed Control Systems consists of decentralized elements and all the processes are controlled by these elements. Human interaction is minimized so the labor costs and injuries can be reduced.

Embedded Control

In this control system, small components are attached to the industrial computer system with the help of a network and control is exercised.

SCADA

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition refers to a centralized system and this system is composed of various subsystems like Remote Telemetry Units, Human Machine Interface, Programmable Logic Controller or PLC and Communications.

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RTU use expands, must make full use of advantages


Use of remote terminal units began in the U.S. oil and gas industry in 1980s and has expanded to electricity, environmental protection, heating networks, water conservancy, and long-distance pipelines. It expanded into transportation, metallurgy, petro chemistry, logistics, and agriculture. Control Engineering China asks a Chinese expert about RTU trends.

Control Engineering China (CEC) noted an expansion of remote terminal unit (RTU) use and asked an expert, Dr. Fang Yuanbai, professorate senior engineer of Kunming Engineering & Research Institute of Non-ferrous Metallurgy, about related trends. 

CEC: RTU applications have expanded significantly the past two years from oil and gas fields to other areas. Well-known automation companies accelerated development, and mergers and acquisitions happened. RTU technologies also advanced. Why is RTU popular? 

Fang Yuanbai: RTU started to be used by the U.S. oil and gas industry in the 1980s and gradually expanded to electricity, environmental protection, heating networks, water conservancy, and long-distance pipelines. Recently it has further expanded to transportation, metallurgy, petro chemistry, logistics, and agriculture. It continues to gain popularity. We can say that in a specific application, such as data collection in the oil and gas field area, RTU is the main trend. However, in the whole oil and gas industry, RTU is not a main trend in automation equipment systems, where, in my opinion, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and distributed control systems (DCSs) are more popular. Output, sales volume, and actual application of PLC and DCS manufacturers far exceeds that of RTU manufacturers.

RTU is gaining popularity for the following reasons:

The enterprise increasingly needs information. In the past, some measurements were given up because they are scattered and the cost to collect data is too high. Now data collection is needed.

As enterprises increase in size and mergers occur, groups can span across cities or even some provinces. Central management requires remote data collection.

As RTU costs decrease, enterprises that gave up remote data collection because of high investment costs are now starting to implement RTU systems.

RTU technologies have advanced. Communications, Internet, database, and signal transmission technologies also promote wider RTU use and market expansion. Industrial wireless transmission technologies provide new RTU signal transmission methods.

Some newly emerging industries, such as solar power plants, wind power plants, and smart buildings, are new applications for RTUs. Previously, we heard of digital oil fields, digital petro chemistry, and digital pipelines. Recently I heard about digital mines in the metal mineral industry, and I also heard propaganda about a “digital city,” although we are still far from it, actually. 

CEC: The definition of enterprise RTU is a little different. How do you define RTU? 

Fang Yuanbai: In my opinion RTU can be defined narrowly and broadly. RTU in a narrow sense is defined as the basic components of a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system. RTU in a broad sense is defined as the remote input/output (I/O) connections used by control systems, including PLC, DSC, field control systems (FCS), and SCADA.

The earliest SCADA had only data collection capability, and RTU had only two basic functions: data collection and processing, and data transmission. However, with the functions of the system expanded, RTU added PID control, logic control, and mathematical computation (such as gas temperature and pressure compensation). So RTU for SCADA and remote I/O of PLC, DCS, and FCS have some common and different attributes. RTU for SCADA can be connected to a control system comprising PLC, DCS, and FCS. For example, we connected a remote supervisory and control terminal (an RTU product from Schlumberger) to a DCS system in 1990s. Remote I/O and even PLCs, DCSs, and FCSs can be connected to SCADA systems. Beijing Echo Technology Co., which focuses on development of industrial RTU products, rolled out the Echo 5100 distributed control system with field control layers composed of RTUs or PLCs based on a standard DCS structure. 

CEC: What’s your view on RTU technology advances? 

Fang Yuanbai: SCADA systems aren’t applied as often as PLC, DCS, and FCS are. To boost the application of RTU and SCADA, we must make full use of RTU advantages. For example, RTUs are mainly installed in the field, especially in rural areas. Usually PLC and DCS remote I/O are not used in these areas. To gain market share, RTUs need to withstand high temperatures and humidity, have dielectric strength, and resist interference, so RTUs are superior to PLC and DCS remote I/O.

Wireless was applied to many RTU and SCADA applications earlier than PLC, DCS, and FCS applications, and the scope of SCADA applications is much wider. However, the industrial wireless standards were proposed and set by manufacturers of PLCs, DCSs, and FCSs. This may be because of the lack of influence or lack of vision of RTU manufacturers.

Market volume of automation (including control systems) ranks high globally. However, the big players in this market are still overseas automation companies, such as U.S.-based Emerson Process Management, German-based Siemens, U.S.-based Honeywell, Japan-based Yokogawa, and U.S.-based Foxboro [now part of U.K.-based Invensys]. China Beijing Hollysys and Hangzhou Supcon are growing and can compete with big players overseas, in some areas. However, when it comes to RTUs, few companies (such as Beijing Echo Technology Co.) can compete with overseas players. I hope more China enterprises focus on the development and market promotion of RTU, build high-end national brands, and make a greater contribution to the development of the RTU industry in China. 

Key concepts

RTU and SCADA are:

– Growing rapidly in many markets as costs decrease and capabilities increase
– Advancing and important in China and abroad
– Dominated by non-Chinese companies, though several China-based companies are gaining 
– This appeared in Control Engineering China and was translated for the Control Engineering North American print and digital edition. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager CFE Media, Control Engineering, Plant Engineering, and Consulting-Specifying Engineer

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What Steve Jobs taught executives about hiring and keeping employees



What Steve Jobs taught executives about hiring and keeping employees

Creating a successful business isn’t just about having a stand-out product, true success ultimately comes down to having a team of stellar people. Any leader knows that it can be difficult to keep these employees that really make a difference in your business, but there are a few things that you can do that will incentivize your superstars to stay while also maximizing their potential:

http://fortune.com/2015/06/09/shahrzad-rafati-keeping-your-best-employees/?platform=hootsuite

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The Dangers of Playing it Safe



The Dangers of Playing it Safe

In life, we are often confronted with two options – one that gives incremental change and one that produces transformational results. Often the inertia of the past keeps us bound and at times the familiarity of the surrounding, keeps us stuck to current circumstances. We continue to go through the daily routine in a half daze. At times not even realising that in the monotony of daily life, our creativity is going untapped and potential unused.

Each day that you are delaying an important decision, you are letting go of an opportunity to do things in a different and better way.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/danger-playing-safe-anshu-bhargava

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A Good System Integration is Never Cheap


A Good System Integration is Never Cheap

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