Difference Between DCS and SCADA



DCS and SCADA are monitoring and control mechanisms that are used in industrial installations to keep track and control of the processes and equipment; to ensure that everything goes smoothly, and none of the equipment work outside the specified limits. The most significant difference between the two is their general design. DCS, or Data Control System, is process oriented, as it focuses more on the processes in each step of the operation. SCADA, or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, focuses more on the acquisition and collation of data for reference of the personnel who are charged with keeping track of the operation.

DCS is process state driven, while SCADA is even driven. DCS does all its tasks in a sequential manner, and events are not recorded until it is scanned by the station. In contrast, SCADA is event driven. It does not call scans on a regular basis, but waits for an event or for a change in value in one component to trigger certain actions. SCADA is a bit more advantageous in this aspect, as it lightens the load of the host. Changes are also recorded much earlier, as an event is logged as soon as a value changes state.

In terms of applications, DCS is the system of choice for installations that are limited to a small locale, like a single factory or plant, while SCADA is preferred when the entire system is spread across a much larger geographic location, examples of which would be oil wells spread out in a large field. Part of the reason for this is the fact that DCS needs to be always connected to the I/O of the system, while SCADA is expected to perform even when field communications fail for some time. SCADA does this by keeping a record of all current values, so that even if the base station is unable to extract new information from a remote location, it would still be able to present the last recorded values.

Summary:

 

1. DCS is process oriented, while SCADA is data acquisition oriented.

2. DCS is process state driven, while SCADA is event driven.

3. DCS is commonly used to handle operations on a single locale, while SCADA is preferred for applications that are spread over a wide geographic location.

4. DCS operator stations are always connected to its I/O, while SCADA is expected to operate despite failure of field communications.

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Difference between Dcs and Plc


In the manufacturing process, there are two types of control that can be employed. One is the Programmed Logic Controller, otherwise commonly referred to as PLC, and the other is the DCS, or the Distributed Control System. The Programmed Logic Control system is a standalone control and is developed to perform a specific task. The DCS, on the other hand, functions as a control system that can work through various levels for the end result to be achieved. This means that the DCS can be formed by several levels of PLC’s in creating a fully functional system.

Traditionally, the formulation of DCS’s was extremely expensive and was only recommended for batch processing industries, as they had various levels of production before the final product was delivered. This concept holds today, albeit with a few changes that have occurred along the way.

Multiple PLC and DCS solutions have been developed through time to ease automation and entire control processes. One of the PLC solutions developed was coupled with HMI (Human Machine Interface)/SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) which allows for user interaction. Furthermore, PLC is a management tool that has a rather analogous control function for process management. PLC ensures that the ladder logic is maintained. This is the preferred solution for use for Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and special project needs. For user interaction, a HMI/SCADA panes must be provided.

For slightly larger processes, a DCS is preferred. This allows for easier management of processes that are beyond the scope of a single PLC management. A small DCS management is much better when compared to traditional DCS management systems, largely due to a smaller footprint. Also the system has a diagnostics database that lowers ownership costs.

For large processes a large DCS solution is recommended. This is a distributed control that has numerous features to help in meeting the production requirements. Functions such as collecting controlling output, alarming, processing, and data collection all are managed in the DCS system. There are specific measures instituted in the DCS solution to handle each process. With the entire system synchronized no single system failure can lead to the failure of another system of a different part.

The geographical distribution of the area is also a factor when deciding between PLC and DCS. If the control functions have been distributed over different geographic locations, use of PLC or even DCS can be considered, depending on the needs. Having different processes individually can help a single part of the system in its management, especially when failure arises, since the failure of a given system does not mean that the entire process should come to a grinding halt.
 

The control algorithms in DCS ought to be advanced, as the loop between the measured and manipulated input handles the entire process. When the word ‘system’ is mentioned in DCS, it means that one process is linked to the rest and there are different physical processes spread over a wide area. To ensure that the PLC control is working as expected, there should be two processes running in the PLC, one controlling the process in question, while the other safeguards the process. Smaller PLC’s can have the same unit running both the control and safeguarding processes.

Summary

PLC is mainly used as a controller of processes and mainly comes as a standalone program.

DCS is mainly used as a control system and will feature different processes which can be made up of merged PLC’s.

Both DCS and PLC can be configured or reconfigured.

DCS is a relatively large system while the PLC is a small system.

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The Best Divorce Letter



The Best Divorce Letter…

My Dear Husband, I’m writing this letter to tell u that I’m leaving you. I’ve been a good wife to u for the last 20 years and I have nothing to show for it, and the last 2 weeks haven been hell. Your boss called to tell me that u left your job today which was the last straw. Last week, you came home and u didn’t even notice I had a new hairstyle, had cooked your favorite meal and even wore a brand new night gown. You ate in 2 minutes and went straight to sleep after watching your TV soaps. You didn’t tell me u love me anymore, u didn’t want sex or anything that connects us as husband and wife. Either u are cheating on me or u don’t love me anymore. Whatever the case, I’m gone….  YOUR EX-WIFE

P.S. Don’t try to find me. Your BROTHER and I are moving to New Zealand together! Have a great life!….

REPLY :

Dear Ex-Wife, 

Nothing has made my day more than receiving your letter. It’s true u and I have been married for 20 years, although a good woman is a far cry from what u have been. I watch TV soaps so much becoz they down out your constant whining and bitching. Too bad that doesnt work anymore. I did notice when u got a hairdo last week, but the 1st thing that came to my mind was ‘you look just like a boy!’. Since my father raised me not to say anything if u can’t say something nice, I didn’t comment. When u cooked my favorite meal, u must have got me confused with MY BROTHER becoz I haven’t eaten prawns for 7 years. About the new night gown, I turned away from u becoz the $299.99 price tag was still on it, and I prayed it was a coincidence that my brother had just borrowed $300 from me that morning. After all of this, i still loved u and felt we could work it out. So when I won the $20 million Lotto on Saturday, I left my job and bought 2 tickets for us to Paris, but when I got home u were gone. Everything happens for a reason, I guess. I hope u have fulfilling life u always wanted. My lawyer said that the LETTER u wrote ensures u won’t get a dollar from me. So take care…
Signed….
Your Ex-Husband, Rich As Hell And Free!

P.S. I don’t know if I ever told u this, but my brother CARL was born CARLA. .I hope that’s not a problem

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FAO Report: Achieving Zero Hunger Requires “Major Overhaul” of Global Food Systems


In discussing each trend, the authors highlight interlinkages with other trends. For example, on agricultural productivity and innovation, the study shows that despite remarkable progress in agricultural technology, the rate of yield increases is declining because of climate change impacts.
The current rate of growth may not be sufficient to meet the demands of a growing world population. Therefore, agricultural research and development must be combined with resource conservation and adaptation practices such as climate-smart agriculture.
Read more.

https://remarkeet.com/blog/blog/2017/02/24/achieving-zero-hunger/

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COST AND RELIABILITY COMPARISON BETWEEN SOLAR AND DIESEL POWERED PUMPS 
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Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

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ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

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Worldliness


From the treatise on Flight from the World by Saint Ambrose, bishop

Hold fast to God, the one true good

Where a man’s heart is, there is his treasure also. God is not accustomed to refusing a good gift to those who ask for one. Since he is good, and especially to those who are faithful to him, let us hold fast to him with all our soul, our heart, our strength, and so enjoy his light and see his glory and possess the grace of supernatural joy. Let us reach out with our hearts to possess that good, let us exist in it and live in it, let us hold fast to it, that good which is beyond all we can know or see and is marked by perpetual peace and tranquillity, a peace which is beyond all we can know or understand.

This is the good that permeates creation. In it we all live, on it we all depend. It has nothing above it; it is divine. No one is good but God alone. What is good is therefore divine, what is divine is therefore good. Scripture says: When you open your hand all things will be filled with goodness. It is through God’s goodness that all that is truly good is given us, and in it there is no admixture of evil.

These good things are promised by Scripture to those who are faithful: The good things of the land will be your food.

We have died with Christ. We carry about in our bodies the sign of his death, so that the living Christ may also be revealed in us. The life we live is not now our ordinary life but the life of Christ: a life of sinlessness, of chastity, of simplicity and every other virtue. We have risen with Christ. Let us live in Christ, let us ascend in Christ, so that the serpent may not have the power here below to wound us in the heel.

Let us take refuge from this world. You can do this in spirit, even if you are kept here in the body. You can at the same time be here and present to the Lord. Your soul must hold fast to him, you must follow after him in your thoughts, you must tread his ways by faith, not in outward show. You must take refuge in him. He is your refuge and your strength. David addresses him in these words: I fled to you for refuge, and I was not disappointed.

Since God is our refuge, God who is in heaven and above the heavens, we must take refuge from this world in that place where there is peace, where there is rest from toil, where we can celebrate the great sabbath, as Moses said: The sabbaths of the land will provide you with food. To rest in the Lord and to see his joy is like a banquet, and full of gladness and tranquillity.

Let us take refuge like deer beside the fountain of waters. Let our soul thirst, as David thirsted, for the fountain. What is that fountain? Listen to David: With you is the fountain of life. Let my soul say to this fountain: When shall I come and see you face to face? For the fountain is God himself.

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San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

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To Curse: Harmful Effects of Cursing



Just because someone we know or are friends with, says something unkind or in anger, doesn’t mean it is ok for us, we have to make our own high standards and stick with them. Sometimes, we have to be the ones to let someone else know that saying cuss words is hurtful to others as well. It can be as simple as saying, “I don’t like it when you say that word”, or “When you say that it hurts my feelings”.

By ages five and six years, kids are thinking that using potty language is funny, by tween and teen years, programming on TV and video games are saturated with F-bombs. Coming into these situations, are the perfect opportunities, to begin helping the youth in our sphere of influence form their own opinions of how cussing can hurt the feelings of people we care about.

Read more why we should not curse or cuss.

https://nobullying.com/curse/

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Covenant


From the treatise Against Heresies 

by Saint Irenaeus, bishop

The covenant of the Lord

In the book of Deuteronomy Moses says to the people: The Lord your God made a covenant on Horeb; he made this covenant, not with your fathers but with you. Why did God not make this covenant with their fathers? Because the law is not aimed at the righteous. Their fathers were righteous: they had the power of the Decalogue implanted in their hearts and in their souls. 

That is, they loved the God who made them and did nothing unjust against their neighbor. For this reason they did not need to be admonished by written rebukes: they had the righteousness of the law in their hearts.

When this righteousness and love for God had passed into oblivion and had been extinguished in Egypt, God had necessarily to reveal himself through his own voice, out of his great love for men. He led the people out of Egypt in power, so that man might once again become God’s disciple and follower. He made them afraid as they listened, to warn them not to hold their Creator in contempt.

He fed them with manna, that they might receive spiritual food. In the book of Deuteronomy Moses says: He fed you with manna, which your fathers did not know, that you might understand that man will not live by bread alone but by every word of God coming from the mouth of God.

He commanded them to love himself and trained them to practice righteousness toward their neighbor, so that man might not be unrighteous or unworthy of God. Through the Decalogue he prepared man for friendship with himself and for harmony with his neighbor. This was to man’s advantage, though God needed nothing from man.

This raised man to glory, for it gave him what he did not have, friendship with God. But it brought no advantage to God, for God did not need man’s love. Man did not possess the glory of God, nor could he attain it by any other means than through obedience to God. This is why Moses said to the people: Choose life, that you may live and your descendants too; love the Lord your God, hear his voice and hold fast to him, for this is life for you and length of days.

This was the life that the Lord was preparing man to receive when he spoke in person and gave the words of the Decalogue for all alike to hear. These words remain with us as well; they were extended and amplified through his coming in the flesh, but not annulled.

God gave to the people separately through Moses the commandments that enslave: these were precepts suited to their instruction or their condemnation. As Moses said: The Lord commanded me at that time to teach you precepts of righteousness and of judgment. The precepts that were given them to enslave and to serve as a warning have been cancelled by the new covenant of freedom. The precepts that belong to man’s nature and to freedom and to all alike have been enlarged and broadened. Through the adoption of sons God had enabled man so generously and bountifully to know him as Father, to love him with his whole heart, and to follow his Word unfailingly.

Description of a Biogas Power Plant


by Salman Zafar

A biogas plant is a decentralized energy system, which can lead to self-sufficiency in heat and power needs, and at the same time reduces environmental pollution. The components of a modern biogas (or anaerobic digestion) plant include: manure collection, anaerobic digester, effluent treatment, gas storage, and gas use/electricity generating equipment. The fresh animal manure is stored in a collection tank before its processing to the homogenization tank which is equipped with a mixer to facilitate homogenization of the waste stream. The uniformly mixed waste is passed through a macerator to obtain uniform particle size of 5-10 mm and pumped into suitable-capacity anaerobic digesters where stabilization of organic waste takes place.

In anaerobic digestion, organic material is converted to biogas by a series of bacteria groups into methane and carbon dioxide. The majority of commercially operating digesters are plug flow and complete-mix reactors operating at mesophilic temperatures. The type of digester used varies with the consistency and solids content of the feedstock, with capital investment factors and with the primary purpose of digestion.

Biogas contain significant amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas which needs to be stripped off due to its highly corrosive nature. The removal of H2S takes place in a biological desulphurization unit in which a limited quantity of air is added to biogas in the presence of specialized aerobic bacteria which oxidizes H2S into elemental sulfur.

Gas is dried and vented into a CHP unit to a generator to produce electricity and heat. The size of the CHP system depends on the amount of biogas produced daily. The digested substrate is passed through screw presses for dewatering and then subjected to solar drying and conditioning to give high-quality organic fertilizer. The press water is treated in an effluent treatment plant based on activated sludge process which consists of an aeration tank and a secondary clarifier. The treated wastewater is recycled to meet in-house plant requirements. A chemical laboratory is necessary to continuously monitor important environmental parameters such as BOD, COD, VFA, pH, ammonia, C:N ratio at different locations for efficient and proper functioning of the process.

The continuous monitoring of the biogas plant is achieved by using a remote control system such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. This remote system facilitates immediate feedback and adjustment, which can result in energy savings.

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People leave managers, not companies. Don’t let that manager be you.


Rich Archbold

Director of Engineering, Intercom

Do people really leave managers, rather than companies? And if so, how do you fix the problem?

The data suggests bad management is a real and significant issue. According to a study by Gallup, one in two people admitted to having left a job to get away from a bad manager. In fact, 70% of the factors that contribute to your happiness at work are directly related to your manager.

Yet few managers ask themselves the hard questions: Am I the reason people are leaving? Was it because of something I did, or something I didn’t do? In my experience, managers suffer something akin to the Dunning-Kruger effect. They assume they’re not the problem, but that their employees are.

Read more.

https://blog.intercom.com/people-leave-managers-not-companies/

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A Step Toward Renewable Diesel



MIT engineers have genetically reprogrammed a strain of yeast so that it converts sugars to fats much more efficiently, an advance that could make possible the renewable production of high-energy fuels such as diesel.

The researchers, led by Gregory Stephanopoulos, the Willard Henry Dow Professor of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology at MIT, modified the metabolic pathways of yeast that naturally produce large quantities of lipids, to make them about 30 percent more efficient.

Read the whole report.

https://adalidda.com/posts/3TPnaCvzz7YNoLFW2/a-step-toward-renewable-diesel-mit-engineers-program-yeast

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