These dental fillings could allow your teeth to heal themselves.

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A Spirit-Led Dad’s 15 Tips for Successful Parenting

//curated information.

Raising children is exhilarating and challenging, clarifying and confusing, frustrating and freeing, but I wouldn’t trade the experience for anything. Although I don’t think there is any magic formula to raising kids, I do believe there are principles that really help a lot. Here are 15 keys I hope will assist you in parenting:


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How to really love others

From a treatise on John by Saint Augustine, bishop

The perfection of love

Dear brethren, the Lord has marked out for us the fullness of love that we ought to have for each other. He tells us: No one has greater love than the man who lays down his life for his friends. In these words, the Lord tells us what the perfect love we should have for one another involves. John, the evangelist who recorded them, draws the conclusion in one of his letters: As Christ laid down his life for us, so we too ought to lay down our lives for our brothers. We should indeed love one another as he loved us, he who laid down his life for us.

This is surely what we read in the Proverbs of Solomon: If you sit down to eat at the table of a ruler, observe carefully what is set before you; then stretch out your hand, knowing that you must provide the same kind of meal yourself. What is this ruler’s table if not the one at which we receive the body and blood of him who laid down his life for us? What does it mean to sit at this table if not to approach it with humility? What does it mean to observe carefully what is set before you if not to meditate devoutly on so great a gift? What does it mean to stretch out one’s hand, knowing that one must provide the same kind of meal oneself, if not what I have just said: as Christ laid down his life for us, so we in our turn ought to lay down our lives for our brothers? This is what the apostle Paul said: Christ suffered for us, leaving us an example, that we might follow in his footsteps.

This is what is meant by providing “the same kind of meal.” This is what the blessed martyrs did with such burning love. If we are to give true meaning to our celebration of their memorials, to our approaching the Lord’s table in the very banquet at which they were fed, we must, like them, provide “the same kind of meal.”

At this table of the Lord we do not commemorate the martyrs in the same way as we commemorate others who rest in peace. We do not pray for the martyrs as we pray for those others, rather, they pray for us, that we may follow in his footsteps. They practiced the perfect love of which the Lord said there could be none greater. They provided “the same kind of meal” as they had themselves received at the Lord’s table. This must not be understood as saying that we can be the Lord’s equals by bearing witness to him to the extent of shedding our blood. He had the power of laying down his life; we by contrast cannot choose the length of our lives, and we die even if it is against our will. He, by dying, destroyed death in himself; we are freed from death only in his death. His body did not see corruption; our body will see corruption and only then be clothed through him in incorruption at the end of the world. He needed no help from us in saving us; without him we can do nothing. He gave himself to us as the vine to the branches; apart from him we cannot have life.

Finally, even if brothers die for brothers, yet no martyr by shedding his blood brings forgiveness for the sins of his brothers, as Christ brought forgiveness to us. In this he gave us, not an example to imitate but a reason for rejoicing. Inasmuch, then, as they shed their blood for their brothers, the martyrs provided “the same kind of meal” as they had received at the Lord’s table. Let us then love one another as Christ also loved us and gave himself up for us.


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From the book On the Holy Spirit by Saint Basil, bishop

By one death and resurrection the world was saved

When mankind was estranged from him by disobedience, God our Savior made a plan for raising us from our fall and restoring us to friendship with himself. According to this plan Christ came in the flesh, he showed us the gospel way of life, he suffered, died on the cross, was buried and rose from the dead. He did this so that we could be saved by imitation of him, and recover our original status as sons of God by adoption.

To attain holiness, then, we must not only pattern our lives on Christ’s by being gentle, humble and patient, we must also imitate him in his death. Taking Christ for his model, Paul said that he wanted to become like him in his death in the hope that he too would be raised from death to life.

We imitate Christ’s death by being buried with him in baptism. If we ask what this kind of burial means and what benefit we may hope to derive from it, it means first of all making a complete break with our former way of life, and our Lord himself said that this cannot be done unless a man is born again. In other words, we have to begin a new life, and we cannot do so until our previous life has been brought to an end. When runners reach the turning point on a racecourse, they have to pause briefly before they can go back in the opposite direction. So also when we wish to reverse the direction of our lives there must be a pause, or a death, to mark the end of one life and the beginning of another.

Our descent into hell takes place when we imitate the burial of Christ by our baptism. The bodies of the baptized are in a sense buried in the water as a symbol of their renunciation of the sins of their unregenerate nature. As the Apostle says: The circumcision you have undergone is not an operation performed by human hands, but the complete stripping away of your unregenerate nature. This is the circumcision that Christ gave us, and it is accomplished by our burial with him in baptism. Baptism cleanses the soul from the pollution of worldly thoughts and inclinations: You will wash me, says the psalmist, and I shall be whiter than snow. We receive this saving baptism only once because there was only one death and one resurrection for the salvation of the world, and baptism is its symbol.


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Our only true glory

From a sermon by Saint Augustine, bishop

Let us too glory in the cross of the Lord

The passion of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ is the hope of glory and a lesson in patience.

What may not the hearts of believers promise themselves as the gift of God’s grace, when for their sake God’s only Son, co-eternal with the Father, was not content only to be born as man from human stock but even died at the hands of the men he had created?

It is a great thing that we are promised by the Lord, but far greater is what has already been done for us, and which we now commemorate. Where were the sinners, what were they, when Christ died for them? When Christ has already given us the gift of his death, who is to doubt that he will give the saints the gift of his own life? Why does our human frailty hesitate to believe that mankind will one day live with God?

Who is Christ if not the Word of God: in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God? This Word of God was made flesh and dwelt among us. He had no power of himself to die for us: he had to take from us our mortal flesh. This was the way in which, though immortal, he was able to die; the way in which he chose to give life to mortal men: he would first share with us, and then enable us to share with him. Of ourselves we had no power to live, nor did he of himself have the power to die.

Accordingly, he effected a wonderful exchange with us, through mutual sharing: we gave him the power to die, he will give us the power to live.

The death of the Lord our God should not be a cause of shame for us; rather, it should be our greatest hope, our greatest glory. In taking upon himself the death that he found in us, he has most faithfully promised to give us life in him, such as we cannot have of ourselves.

He loved us so much that, sinless himself, he suffered for us sinners the punishment we deserved for our sins. How then can he fail to give us the reward we deserve for our righteousness, for he is the source of righteousness? How can he, whose promises are true, fail to reward the saints when he bore the punishment of sinners, though without sin himself?

Brethren, let us then fearlessly acknowledge, and even openly proclaim, that Christ was crucified for us; let us confess it, not in fear but in joy, not in shame but in glory.

The apostle Paul saw Christ, and extolled his claim to glory. He had many great and inspired things to say about Christ, but he did not say that he boasted in Christ’s wonderful works: in creating the world, since he was God with the Father, or in ruling the world, though he was also a man like us. Rather, he said: Let me not boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ.


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How to improve your posture in 5 days


//Curated Information:


Sitting in front of a computer all day, incorrect posture when reading and sedentary lifestyle – all those lead to an undesirable curvature of the spine.

Excessive stress on the chest and neck muscles leads to shoulder stiffness and weakness of muscles in the upper back.

I recommend using a Magnetic back-alignment belt for correcting body posture.

Read more.


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Industry 4.0 – The 4th Industrial Revolution

Source: WikipediA

Industry 4.0 is the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of things and cloud computing.[1][2][3][4]

Industry 4.0 creates what has been called a “smart factory”. Within the modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real time, and via the Internet of Services, both internal and cross-organizational services are offered and used by participants of the value chain.[1]

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Local or remote real-time operational data monitoring is the precursor of the 4th industrial revolution and IoT (Internet of Things). The power of data when you need it, where you need it. Space and time constraints totally eliminated.

We offer our expertise and experience on SCADA. FDAS. BMS. HMI. FMS. DCS. PLC. PAC. DCS. RTU. SMS. Controls Automation and Instrumentation System Integration. 

We have done above subject for high rise and commercial building BMS and FDAS. Industrial HMI and Automation. Marine vessel instrumentation. Wind, Solar, and Biomass Power Plant local and remote SCADA- generation capacity of 12KW to 50MW.

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Distinguished Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering School of Engineering and Technology SHARDA UNIVERSITY
Greater Noida, India 

1. Introduction

Before we can identify and discuss the functions of SCADA system, let us briefly overview the layout, working and components of a SCADA system.

1.1 Overview

The RTU acquires analog values and status information through sensors and status sensors, respectively. Similarly, it delivers the set points and discrete control commands to automatic controllers and actuators, respectively. These devices thus act as the interface between the RTU and the controlled plant. Being located in the field (within the plant), these devices are known as field devices (FDs). The electrical communication system linking the field devices to the RTU is called the RTU-FD communication sub-system. Thus, a SCADA system is broadly comprised of the following five components:

(i) Remoteterminalunits(RTUs)

(ii) Master terminal unit (MTU) 

(iii)MTU-RTU communication subsystem (iv)Field devices (FDs)
(v) RTU-FD communication subsystem.

1.2 Functions

A supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system performs the following major functions:

(i) Human-machine interface (HMI)

(ii) Electrical communication

(iii) Data acquisition (DAQ)

(iv) Monitoring

(v) Control

(vi) Data collection, storage and retrieval

(vii) Calculation

(viii) Report generation

2. Human-Machine Interface (HMI) 

2.1 What is HMI?

The SCADA system is designed to monitor and control the process/ plant automatically most of the time. However, for various reasons provisions are made for human operators to continuously watch its operation and to intervene as and when felt necessary by them. This requires an interface between the SCADA system and the human operators. The same is provided as a standard practice in the MTU located in the control room. The MTU is built and functions around a computer. Therefore, the human-SCADA interface is realised through human-computer interface, commonly known as human-machine interface (HMI) and sometimes as graphic operator interface (GOI).

2.2 Role of HMI

The human-machine interface (HMI) enables the operator:

(a) to ‘watch’ the process/plant being monitored and controlled by SCADA system, and

(b) to ‘intervene’ as and when considered necessary by him.

2.3 What Does HMI Comprise?

In order to perform the above role, the HMI comprises suitable hardware (input/output devices or computer peripherals as discussed below) and the related software drivers (or data- transfer software):

A. Input Devices for HMI: The input device almost always used for HMI is the standard (ASCII) keyboard, one on each operator console. The operator can use it for entering (a) data and (b) instructions for intervention in the computer control.

B. Output Devices for HMI: The following output devices are used for HMI:

(i) The mostly used output device is the video monitor or video display unit (VDU) along with a mouse, one monitor-mouse pair on each operator console. Colour LCD monitors are now preferred to achieve a better visual impact in presenting status, events, alarms and trends to the operator.

(ii) Very often, a speaker or buzzer is also provided on the operator console for issuing audio alerts and audio alarms to the operator.

(iii) A large wall-mounted high-definition LED screen is used for displaying boldly a single- line diagram (SLD) of the process flow, called as mimic diagram or simply mimic, and the screen is traditionally known as mimic board. The purpose of the mimic is to present at-a-glance picture or overview of the complete process to the operators. It can be either static or dynamic. A static mimic displays only a static SLD of the process, whereas a dynamic mimic displays the real-time status of major objects in the plant and the current measured values of important variables, both laid over the SLD of the process.

(iv) One or more printers are included for generating hard copy of (a) programs, (b) screen shots, and (c) reports.
(v) The HMI of the earlier SCADA systems used to incorporate a plotter as well for generating hard copy of trend curves, graphs and drawings. With the advent of high- resolution low-cost printers, the plotters have become obsolete.

3. Electrical communication
Electrical communication is required:

(a) Between the MTU and each RTU, and

(b) Between each RTU and the field devices connected to it. Details of these communications are described below.

3.1 MTU-RTU Communication

Each RTU is expected to acquire data (analog values of important variables and status information of important objects) from the plant section assigned to this particular RTU and to transmit data to the MTU after necessary processing of the acquired data. Likewise, each RTU expects to receive control instructions (relevant to the plant section assigned to it) from the MTU and deliver them to the plant. This necessitates two-way (or duplex) digital communication between RTUs and the MTU.

There is no need of providing individual point-to-point communication links between each RTU and the MTU. Such an arrangement would require the MTU to have one transceiver (transmitter + receiver) per RTU and the total length of communication cables would also be very large. This would make the cost of MTU-RTU communication subsystem very high and its performance and reliability very poor. A much better option, which is now commonly used, is to provide/ use a single data network linking all the RTUs with the MTU. However, depending on the geographic size of the controlled process and dispersion of its facilities, the data network may be a LAN (local area network), MAN (metropolitan area network) or WAN (wide area network).

For a public utility spread over a nation or beyond, even the Internet may be used for data communication between the MTU and the RTUs, subject to data security considerations.

3.2 RTU-Field Device Communication

Each RTU acquires the analog values of controlled and uncontrolled variables of the process through analog sensors and the status information from remotely and locally controlled objects in the plant using status sensors. Similarly, it delivers the set points to automatic or feedback controllers (of the controlled variables) and discrete control commands to various actuators (of the remotely controlled objects). Thus these devices (analog and status sensors, feedback controllers and actuators), known as field devices, act as the interface between the RTU and the controlled process/ plant. The following important points should be noted in regard to the communication between an RTU and the related field devices:

(a) The communication between simple (non-smart) field devices and RTU is in one direction only or simplex, as against an essential duplex communication between RTUs and MTU. To clarify the point further, the information or signal has to travel only from non-smart sensors to the RTU, but not from RTU to the sensors. Similarly, the information to the unintelligent controllers and actuators has to come from RTU and no information or signal goes from these devices to the RTU.

(b) The status information going from the status sensors to the RTU and the control commands delivered by the RTU to the actuators, both, are essentially discrete (or binary) in nature. These are sent using binary signals (high/low or 1/0 signals).

(c) The information going from the analog sensors to the RTU is analog in nature. This analog information is either transmitted as such to the RTU using analog communication (4-20 mA is the most widely used analog signal) or is first converted to digital value using an analog- to-digital converter (ADC) and then transmitted using digital communication techniques.

(d) The set points received by the RTU from the MTU are always digital in nature, because RTU-MTU communication is always digital. The RTU can deliver it in digital form itself using digital communication, provided the automatic controller receiving it is also of digital type. But if the controller is of analog type, the RTU will convert it to analog value (4-20 mA most likely) using a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and send this analog signal to the controller.

(e) Lastly, if smart or intelligent field devices are used, then a two-way digital communication will be required between them and the RTU. In fact, a local area network (LAN) can be set up for the communication between such field devices and the RTU, with the attendant benefits of lower cost, reduced wiring/cabling and higher reliability.

4. Data Acquisition (DAQ)

Data are acquired and processed by RTUs and transmitted to MTU on the MTU-RTU data network.

4.1 What Data are Acquired?
As briefly mentioned under the review of SCADA system, two types of data are continuously acquired by the RTU:

(a) Analog Values: Values of the uncontrolled as well as controlled variables, which are almost always analog in nature, are acquired continuously using suitable analog sensors (or transducers), signal conditioners and a microprocessor-based data acquisition circuit. The sensors are naturally placed at the locations where the variables are located. The signal conditioners may be located close to the sensors or inside the RTU or in front of the RTU. In the last case, the external signal conditioner processes the electrical signal coming from a sensor before inputting it to the RTU. In case of a smart sensor, the signal conditioning circuit is integrated with a micro-sensor in a single chip. Data acquisition circuit is an internal and important component of the RTU.

(b) Status Information: Information about the states of remotely as well as locally controlled objects, which is essentially discrete or binary in nature, is also acquired continuously. This is done using suitable status sensors and a data acquisition circuit.

4.2 When are Data Transmitted?

The data acquired as above is processed in the RTU to extract the information as required by the MTU. Details of the data processing will be taken up under the “calculation” function of RTU. The extracted information (or processed data) is transmitted by the RTU to the MTU on five occasions:

(i) Periodically at a pre-determined rate (this rate is often different for different data).
(ii) Whenever an event takes place (event means a change larger than a predefined change
from the normal or the previous value of a variable or a change in the state of an object).
(iii) On start-up of the plant or process.
(iv) Whenever the process or plant is restarted.
(v) In response to a demand made by MTU.

5. Monitoring

It is a common practice to monitor (a) status, (b) events, (c) limits and (d) trends. This function (monitoring) is carried out jointly by RTU and MTU as discussed below.

5.1 Status Monitoring

As one its important functions, the RTU determines the status of two-state objects from the status information acquired continuously by it (as already discussed under Data Acquisition). It takes some finite time for the object to change from one stable state to the other stable state. Thus the object is in an intermediate but unstable state during the change-over. The method of determining the status should be such that the decision of the RTU is not vitiated by this intermediate state. Very often, this is achieved by introducing a delay in making the decision, which is a little more than the operating time of the object. The status of important objects monitored by the RTU in this way is transmitted by it to the MTU for displaying to the operator on video monitor.

5.2 Event Monitoring

Generally it is the RTU which is responsible for detecting events and intimating to the MTU. The RTU compares the current value of a variable against its previous, normal or reference value. If the change exceeds a predefined increment or decrement, an event is said to have taken place. Similarly, the RTU compares the current status of an object against the previous, normal or reference state of that object. If the change is of a predefined type, an event is said to have occurred. Moreover, the event can be one of the following types:

(i) Instantaneous Event: It means an abrupt change or a change without any intentional delay. This type of event is communicated at once by the RTU to the MTU.

(ii) Delayed Event: It means a change with an intentional delay. It is communicated by the RTU only when the change is completed.

(iii) Sequential Event: It means a sequence of activities or changes. This type of event is communicated by the RTU on the completion of the sequence.

In each case, as and when an intimation of the occurrence / completion of an event is received by the MTU, it stores the same in its computer memory and annunciates or displays suitably to the operator on speaker/ buzzer/ video monitor of HMI.

5.3 Limit Monitoring

Four sets of limits are monitored in a well-designed SCADA system:

(i) Reasonability Limits: Every feedback controller is expected to monitor and maintain the value of the variable controlled by it within a pair of upper and lower limits, called reasonability limits. In case the value of the variable tends to rise above the upper limit or fall below the lower limit, the controller take corrective action to keep the value within the limits.

(ii) Warning Limits: 

The computer in the MTU monitors critical variables in the process against certain predefined limits on the basis of the data coming from the RTUs. In case such a limit is found violated, the computer displays a warning message to the operator on video monitor. Alternatively, the RTU monitors these variables and, in case of a violation of limits, communicates this fact to the MTU for warning the operator. The operator is then expected to intervene and take a planned action before the situation becomes alarming.

(iii) Alarm Limits: 

If the operator fails to act on a warning, some critical variables may cross the farther set of alarm limits. When alarm limits are violated, the computer of the MTU generates an alarm so that the operator takes an emergency action before the system becomes unstable or unsafe. An alarm is in the form of sounding a buzzer or pronouncement on a speaker.

(iv) Safety Limits: 

In case a certain parameter crosses a predefined limit indicative of danger to the process, plant or personnel, the concerned RTU or the protection system of the plant generates a command to shut down a part or whole of the process. Typically, one or more circuit breakers are tripped by protective relays to shut off power supply to a part or whole of the process/plant.

5.4 Trend Monitoring

The following trends are generally monitored:

(i) Variation of critical/ important parameters with time , and/ or 

(ii) Rate of variation of critical/ important parameters.
These trends usually reveal the working and health of the system much more than do the absolute values of the system parameters. The trends are calculated in real time by the computer of the MTU from the data received by it from the RTUs, and are displayed to the operator as curves on video monitor to enable him to take appropriate action as and when he notices an abnormal trend.

6. Control

Control instructions (set points and discrete control commands) are sent by MTU to the RTUs. The set points received by an RTU are delivered by it to the concerned automatic controllers. The discrete control commands received by an RTU are executed as under:

(a) A simple device control command is delivered by the RTU to the concerned actuator.

(b) When a sequential control command is received by an RTU, it initiates the intended
sequence of actions.

(c) When a regulation command (like ‘raise-lower’, or ‘up-down’ command) is received by an RTU it is interpreted by the RTU and delivered to the related actuator. For example, ‘raise’ command is delivered to the ‘lower’ terminal of a gate controller for raising a dam gate continuously as long as the ‘raise’ command continues and ‘lower’ command is delivered to the ‘lower’ terminal of the gate controller for similarly lowering the gate continuously as long as the ‘lower’ command is present.

7. Data Collection, Storage and Retrieval

As explained earlier, each RTU acquires certain data from the controlled process/ plant, processes it appropriately, and then transmits to the MTU at appropriate instants. Some of the data so received by the MTU is stored in the mass-storage media of the MTU. An operator can later on retrieve a block of data of his interest from the storage and recreate an event, sequence or history for visualization and analysis

7.1 Types of Data Stored

Three types of data are stored by the MTU in its mass-storage media:

(a) Disturbance Data: Short duration data, the duration of which ranges typically between a few seconds to several minutes, is stored for recording a disturbance in the process.

(b) Historical Data: Medium duration data, its duration ranging from a few hours to several days, is recorded for keeping a history of operation of the process.

(c) Planning Data: Long duration data, recorded typically over a month, a quarter of a year, one full year, or even a few years, is meant to serve as a vital input for planning.

7.2 Time Stamping of Data

The data received from various RTUs is stored with chronology to recreate a disturbance event or a historical event. To that end, the individual data must be tagged with the time of its occurrence, or ‘time-stamped’, either at the receiving end (that is by the MTU) or at the transmitting end (that is by the individual RTUs). Because of variable delays in transmission of data from different RTUs to the MTU, the first option can distort the sequence of activities represented by the data. On the other hand, the second option can distort the data if the time clocks of various RTUs are not synchronized. The best option is synchronize the clocks of all RTUs and MTU and to time stamp the data at RTUs. If the controlled process is located within small premises, synchronizing the clocks of all RTUs and MTU becomes a simple task. On the hand, if the process is spread over a large area (typical in the case of utilities), the time clocks of all RTUs and MTU are synchronized using GPS (geographical positioning system).

8. Calculation

Calculations are made both in RTUs and MTU. The nature and extent of these calculations are brought out below:

8.1 Calculations in RTU

The microprocessor of an RTU is required to perform simple calculations or data processing, such as:

(a) Filtering the data acquired by it to remove noise,

(b) Extraction of desired information, like maximum, minimum, rms or average value or rate
of change, from filtered data,

(c) Conversion of numbers to values in engineering units, and

(d) Compression of data to reduce data-transmission-rate and storage requirements.

8.2 Calculations in MTU

The calculations that need to be made by the computer of the MTU are in general fairly extensive and complex. These calculations are made for predicting the behavior of the system (controlled process) through mathematical modeling for certain anticipated conditions and certain inputs to the system, both for normal and contingency operation. The output of these calculations is a set control instructions to be sent to different RTUs for each set of system conditions and inputs. The calculations are usually made on floating-point numbers and in batch mode.

9. Report Generation

One of the important functions of SCADA software is to generate a vast number of reports on the basis of the data stored by the MTU. To that end, SCADA software includes a report generator module, which retrieves data from the MTU database and generates the desired reports from it. The software module allows the user to choose the format of reports, customize the style of reports, insert graphics and even perform calculations.

9.1 Purpose of Report Generation

These reports provide an invaluable information support to decision making in:

(a) Operation of the whole system

(b) Maintenance of the whole system

(c) Management of the business related to the controlled process

(d) Technical and business planning, both short-term and long-term.

9.2 Types of Reports

A good report generator (software) is capable of generating the following types of reports. However, the exact nature, number, format and contents of the reports depend on the user’s need and liking and the purpose of such reports.

(a) Status Report: Reflecting the analog values of important variables, states of important objects, set points, limit settings, etc., at a specified time.

(b) Trend Report: Reflecting the trends of the variation or the rate of variation of certain selected variables over a specified period.

(c) Event Report or Event Log: A log of the events recorded over a specified period.

(d) Alarm Report or Alarm Log: A log of the alarms generated over a specified period.

(e) Communication Report or Communication Log: A log of the communications taken place between the MTU and the selected RTUs over a specified period.

(f) Display Printout or Screen Printout: A printout of a selected screen/ display on a VDU.

(g) Operational Reports: Reports on other operational aspects of the system, like a record of data preceding and following an event or disturbance, energy consumption by different parts of the process/ system over a specified period, record of production over a specified period, and so on.

(h) Statistical Reports: Reports showing statistical information or presenting information based on statistical analysis of the operational data recorded by the MTU.

9.3 When to Generate Reports?

These reports are generated variously on continuous, periodic or on-demand basis as under:

(a) Some of the reports, like status, trend, event or alarm reports, are generated periodically, for example, every 8, 12 or 24 hours. In addition, reports of the most recent events and alarms are generated on demand following a disturbance or breakdown in the system.

(b) An earlier practice was to generate continuous logs of events and alarms on a dedicated printer. This practice resulted in gross wastage of paper and printing ink, as most of the printed output would never be looked into. The reason for this practice was that the electronic/ magnetic memories were not considered very reliable or were too expensive. This practice is now largely obsolete because of the changed condions.

(c) Screen printouts are taken occasionally when a need to analyse the data off-line arises, say, following a major disturbance or breakdown.

(d) Operational and statistical reports are generated at longer intervals, say monthly, quarterly or annually, to serve as information inputs to management and planning exercises.

9.4 Where to Generate/ Print a Report?

Various reports are generated/ printed at different places as under:

(a) The reports required to be generated periodicallyl and/or on demand, are generated and printed in the control room. A printer is included as a part of operator’s console.

(b) As mentioned earlier, a dedicated printer was earlier used for continuous printing of event and alarm logs. To avoid printing noise in the control room, such printers were often placed in a separate (preferably sound-proof) chamber close to the control room.

(c) Statistical reportsk are usually required by the corporate decision makers. In a typical modern scenario, corporate servers and computers are connected to the MTU server on a network (LAN or WAN or Internet). Therefore, statistical reports are generated on the corporate computers and printed in the concerned corporate department.

(d) Some of the reports may need to be generated by a maintenance engineer to help him in trouble-shooting. He would generally use a laptop computer to access database of SCADA system and generate the necessary report by plugging it to the SCADA network.


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Jess C.Gregorio

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San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

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122 solar powered pumps installed in Koraput district

By PTI | Dec 29, 2014, 02.02 PM IST

The scheme is being executed by Odisha Renewable Energy Development Agency (OREDA) with the Centre funding the entire project.


KORAPUT (ODISHA): To provide potable piped water in inaccessible tribal pockets, Koraput district administration has installed 122 solar power-based pumping systems this financial year. 

“With most tribal hamlets thinly populated and without electricity, it became difficult to supply piped water to these places under the present scheme. So we introduced solar energy-based piped water system in areas with a population of less than 300,” Executive Engineer (rural supply and sanitation), Koraput, Monaranjan Mali said. 

The solar-operated submersible pumps, which draw 5,000 to 20,000 litre water everyday, operate automatically and store water in an overhead tank, he said. 

Officials said a solar array (300-800W) is installed near a borewell and one HP submersible pump is placed inside it. These work on power generated from photo-voltaic solar cells. 

On a regular day, the pump operates for about 7-8 hours, Mali said. 

The scheme is being executed by Odisha Renewable Energy Development Agency (OREDA) with the Centre funding the entire project. 

“The solar panel will last for 15-20 years. Both operation and maintenance costs are low. OREDA will maintain the project for first five years,” Mali said. 


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Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

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Difference Between DCS and SCADA

DCS and SCADA are monitoring and control mechanisms that are used in industrial installations to keep track and control of the processes and equipment; to ensure that everything goes smoothly, and none of the equipment work outside the specified limits. The most significant difference between the two is their general design. DCS, or Data Control System, is process oriented, as it focuses more on the processes in each step of the operation. SCADA, or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, focuses more on the acquisition and collation of data for reference of the personnel who are charged with keeping track of the operation.

DCS is process state driven, while SCADA is even driven. DCS does all its tasks in a sequential manner, and events are not recorded until it is scanned by the station. In contrast, SCADA is event driven. It does not call scans on a regular basis, but waits for an event or for a change in value in one component to trigger certain actions. SCADA is a bit more advantageous in this aspect, as it lightens the load of the host. Changes are also recorded much earlier, as an event is logged as soon as a value changes state.

In terms of applications, DCS is the system of choice for installations that are limited to a small locale, like a single factory or plant, while SCADA is preferred when the entire system is spread across a much larger geographic location, examples of which would be oil wells spread out in a large field. Part of the reason for this is the fact that DCS needs to be always connected to the I/O of the system, while SCADA is expected to perform even when field communications fail for some time. SCADA does this by keeping a record of all current values, so that even if the base station is unable to extract new information from a remote location, it would still be able to present the last recorded values.



1. DCS is process oriented, while SCADA is data acquisition oriented.

2. DCS is process state driven, while SCADA is event driven.

3. DCS is commonly used to handle operations on a single locale, while SCADA is preferred for applications that are spread over a wide geographic location.

4. DCS operator stations are always connected to its I/O, while SCADA is expected to operate despite failure of field communications.


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