PLC Hardware


Curated information from PLC Manual

PLC Hardware
Hardware Components of a PLC System
Processor unit (CPU), Memory, Input/Output, Power supply unit, Programming device, and other devices.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)
CPU – Microprocessor based, may allow arithmetic operations, logic operators, block memory moves, computer interface, local area network, functions, etc.
CPU makes a great number of check-ups of the PLC controller itself so eventual errors would be discovered early.

System Busses
The internal paths along which the digital signals flow within the PLC are called busses.

The system has four busses:
– The CPU uses the data bus for sending data between the different elements,
– The address bus to send the addresses of locations for accessing stored data,
– The control bus for signals relating to internal control actions,
– The system bus is used for communications between the I/O ports and the I/O unit.

Memory
System (ROM) to give permanent storage for the operating system and the fixed data used by the CPU.
RAM for data. This is where information is stored on the status of input and output devices and the values of timers and counters and other internal devices. EPROM for ROM’s that can be programmed and then the program made permanent.

I/O Sections
Inputs monitor field devices, such as switches and sensors.
Outputs control other devices, such as motors, pumps, solenoid valves, and lights.

Power Supply
Most PLC controllers work either at 24 VDC or 220 VAC. Some PLC controllers have electrical supply as a separate module, while small and medium series already contain the supply module.

Programming Device
The programming device is used to enter the required program into the memory of the processor.
The program is developed in the programming device and then transferred to the memory unit of the PLC.

————————————–

SCADA. FDAS. HMI. FMS. PLC. PAC. DCS. RTU. SMS.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/working-on-the-scada-system-of-a-50mw-solar-power-plant-in-tarlac/

We do design, programming, and system integration of local-to-remote-real-time data monitoring and control. Create the leverage to catch up with change brought about by the 4th Industrial Revolution and the entry of IoT (Internet of Things). Would like to assist you eliminate constraints of time and distance on the plant floor.
We have done high rise and commercial building BMS and FDAS. Commissioned industrial plant floor HMI and Automation systems. Serviced marine vessel instrumentation. Customized and programmed wind, solar, and biomass power plant SCADA- 12KW up to 50MW.
Looking forward to serve you. 

Best Regards,
Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/
Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines
Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

How southern Africa is coping with worst global food crisis for 25 years


From Angola to Zimbabwe, food prices are soaring and malnutrition is on the rise as the latest El Niño weather event takes a brutal toll. *Curated information on drought. Flashback story.

Angola
Drought is affecting 1.4 million people across seven of Angola’s 18 provinces. Food prices have rocketed and acute malnutrition rates have doubled, with more than 95,000 children affected. Food insecurity is expected to worsen from July to the end of the year.

Read how was it with 11 more African countries.

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/may/22/southern-africa-worst-global-food-crisis-25-years

————————————

We supply and install solar pump system for domestic water usage or crop irrigation. Turnkey systems up to 15HP, 98 Mtrs max. well depth, max. 60 Cu.Mtrs max flowrate, 6 inches max. well pipe dia. 
We are open to financing projects with big requirements for irrigational solar pumps.
Email me details of target project for our financing assessment:
– your contact details and relation to such project (owner, director, management, staff)

– location address of project

– list of diesel or electricity driven pump to be replaced, their pumping capacity in HP, and other pertinent available details.

– scanned copy of three consecutive monthly electricity bill or fuel consumption cost for gasoline/diesel powered pumps. Last month bill going backward.

SOLAR POWERED RICE FARM IRRIGATION
https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/01/22/solar-powered-farm-pumps/

COST AND RELIABILITY COMPARISON BETWEEN SOLAR AND DIESEL POWERED PUMPS 
https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/02/14/a-cost-and-reliability-comparison-between%e2%80%a8solar-and-diesel-powered-pumps/

Looking forward to jumpstart you to a no-cost-water-pumping operation without constraints on the usual high investment required to start it up.

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/
Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines
Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

Op-ed: Being Alarmed Is Not the Same as Being an Alarmist


Curated Information
When the evidence clearly suggests that we’re heading toward a catastrophe, scientists shouldn’t hesitate to make their feelings known to the public. So, at what point should scientists begin to publicly worry about the environment? 

Scientists are trained to report their findings in a disinterested manner. The aim is to be as objective as possible, and this means bracketing one’s feelings in favor of the facts.

But what happens when the evidence suggests that humanity is racing towards a global, irreversible disaster? What happens when the results of scientific inquiry clearly warrant activism in favor of a particular law or policy?

Read more.

https://futureoflife.org/2016/08/01/op-ed-alarmed-not-alarmist/

————————————–

Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power?

We do turnkey biogas power plant projects. We can setup and commission your W2E infrastructure. Find you a local or an international project financing window. Or maybe a local JV business partner for big project plans. We are particularly looking for that one single deal of a clustered or multiple biogas power plant construction project to finance.

We have designed, built, and commissioned more than 400 biogas power plants everywhere in the world.

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/planet-international-project-track-record.pdf

If interested and would like to tap our services, kindly fill up questionnaire below and email back. We will assess your substrate sustainability and see if a biogas power plant is right for you.

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/msw-w2e-project-questionnaire.pdf

Danke!

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

PlanET Biogas GmbH Company Profile

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/planet-company-profile.pdf

Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/biogas-faq/

Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines

Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

PLC History


Curated Information from PLC Manual

PLC development began in 1968 in response to a request from an US car manufacturer (GE). The first PLCs were installed in industry in 1969.
Communications abilities began to appear in approximately 1973. They could also be used in the 70’s to send and receive varying voltages to allow them to enter the analog world.
The 80’s saw an attempt to:

standardize communications with manufacturing automation protocol (MAP), reduce the size of the PLC, and making them software programmable through symbolic programming on personal computers instead of dedicated programming terminals or handheld programmers.
The 90’s have seen a gradual reduction in the introduction of new protocols, and the modernization of the physical layers of some of the more popular protocols that survived the 1980’s.
The latest standard “IEC 1131-3” has tried to merge plc programming languages under one international standard. We now have PLCs that are programmable in function block diagrams, instruction lists, C and structured text all at the same time.

————————————-

SCADA. FDAS. HMI. FMS. PLC. PAC. DCS. RTU. SMS.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/working-on-the-scada-system-of-a-50mw-solar-power-plant-in-tarlac/

We do design, programming, and system integration of local-to-remote-real-time data monitoring and control. Create the leverage to catch up with change brought about by the 4th Industrial Revolution and the entry of IoT (Internet of Things). Would like to assist you eliminate constraints of time and distance on the plant floor.
We have done high rise and commercial building BMS and FDAS. Commissioned industrial plant floor HMI and Automation systems. Serviced marine vessel instrumentation. Customized and programmed wind, solar, and biomass power plant SCADA- 12KW up to 50MW.
Looking forward to serve you. 

Best Regards,
Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/
Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines
Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

Animals die as Cambodia is gripped by worst drought in decades


Curated information on drought. Flashback story.

“Previous droughts only affected parts of the country, but the current drought is affecting the whole,” he said on Tuesday.

Nineteen provinces have been classified as in a serious condition requiring “immediate intervention” from the government, he said, and while the authorities have held off on making an appeal for international aid, “ministries, military units, NGOs, and everyone capable of helping” have been asked to step up.

Read more.

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/may/05/animals-die-cambodia-worst-drought-decades

————————————–

We supply and install solar pump system for domestic water usage or crop irrigation. Turnkey systems up to 15HP, 98 Mtrs max. well depth, max. 60 Cu.Mtrs max flowrate, 6 inches max. well pipe dia. 
We are open to financing projects with big requirements for irrigational solar pumps.
Email me details of target project for our financing assessment:
– your contact details and relation to such project (owner, director, management, staff)

– location address of project

– list of diesel or electricity driven pump to be replaced, their pumping capacity in HP, and other pertinent available details.

– scanned copy of three consecutive monthly electricity bill or fuel consumption cost for gasoline/diesel powered pumps. Last month bill going backward.

SOLAR POWERED RICE FARM IRRIGATION
https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/01/22/solar-powered-farm-pumps/

COST AND RELIABILITY COMPARISON BETWEEN SOLAR AND DIESEL POWERED PUMPS 
https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/02/14/a-cost-and-reliability-comparison-between%e2%80%a8solar-and-diesel-powered-pumps/

Looking forward to jumpstart you to a no-cost-water-pumping operation without constraints on the usual high investment required to start it up.

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/
Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines
Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

Introducing the terrifying mathematics of the Anthropocene


Fossil fuel has turned us into force of nature.
*curated information—

Here are some surprising facts about humans’ effect on planet Earth. We have made enough concrete to create an exact replica of Earth 2mm thick. We have produced enough plastic to wrap Earth in clingfilm. We are creating “technofossils”, a new term for congealed human-made materials – plastics and concretes – that will be around for tens of millions of years.

But it is the scale that humans have altered Earth’s life support system that is the most concerning.

Read more.

http://theconversation.com/introducing-the-terrifying-mathematics-of-the-anthropocene-70749

————————————-

Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power?

We do turnkey biogas power plant projects. We can setup and commission your W2E infrastructure. Find you a local or an international project financing window. Or maybe a local JV business partner for big project plans. We are particularly looking for that one single deal of a clustered or multiple biogas power plant construction project to finance.

We have designed, built, and commissioned more than 400 biogas power plants everywhere in the world.

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/planet-international-project-track-record.pdf

If interested and would like to tap our services, kindly fill up questionnaire below and email back. We will assess your substrate sustainability and see if a biogas power plant is right for you.

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/msw-w2e-project-questionnaire.pdf

Danke!

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

PlanET Biogas GmbH Company Profile

https://jcgregsolutions.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/planet-company-profile.pdf

Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/biogas-faq/

Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines

Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

What can the blockchain be useful for, in real life ?


*curated information—-

The “blockchain” of rice growing communities

In Asia, people grow rice. Growing rice requires rice paddies, flat fields that can be flooded with water. This means that the vast majority of rice fields are located in river deltas. Growing rice is labour-intensive, therefore rice-growing civilisations value enormously mutual cooperation and help. As a result, the population lives in small villages where everybody knows everybody, a typical peer-to-peer organisation where there is no need of a strong central authority. There is a Vietnamese proverb that says “the authority of the emperor stops at the gate of the village”.

In such communities, when you promise to help someone for the harvest at a given day, the whole neighbourhood knows and records your promise, and you cannot deny it anymore. And if a boy dates a girl, the whole village knows it also. Clearly, gossiping is the way of life in such communities, be it good or bad.

Read more.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-can-blockchain-useful-real-life-khang-vu-tien

—————————————-

SCADA. FDAS. HMI. FMS. PLC. PAC. DCS. RTU. SMS.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/working-on-the-scada-system-of-a-50mw-solar-power-plant-in-tarlac/

We do design, programming, and system integration of local-to-remote-real-time data monitoring and control. Create the leverage to catch up with change brought about by the 4th Industrial Revolution and the entry of IoT (Internet of Things). Would like to assist you eliminate constraints of time and distance on the plant floor.

We have done high rise and commercial building BMS and FDAS. Commissioned industrial plant floor HMI and Automation systems. Serviced marine vessel instrumentation. Customized and programmed wind, solar, and biomass power plant SCADA- 12KW up to 50MW.

Looking forward to serve you. 

Best Regards,

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/

Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines

Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

Introduction to PLCs


*curated information…

By PLC Manual

What does ‘PLC’ mean?

A PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) is an industrial computer used to monitor inputs, and depending upon their state make decisions based on its program or logic, to control (turn on/off) its outputs to automate a machine or a process.

NEMA defines a PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER as:

“A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions by implementing specific functions such as logic sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to control, through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of machines or processes”.

Traditional PLC Applications
*In automated system, PLC controller is usually the central part of a process control system.
*To run more complex processes it is possible to connect more PLC controllers to a central computer.

Disadvantages of PLC control
– Too much work required in connecting wires.

– Difficulty with changes or replacements.
– Difficulty in finding errors; requiring skillful work force.

– When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long.

Advantages of PLC control
* Rugged and designed to withstand vibrations, temperature, humidity, and noise.

* Have interfacing for inputs and outputs already inside the controller.

* Easily programmed and have an easily understood programming language.

Major Types of Industrial Control Systems

Industrial control system or ICS comprise of different types of control systems that are currently in operation in various industries. These control systems include PLC, SCADA and DCS and various others:

PLC

They are based on the Boolean logic operations whereas some models use timers and some have continuous control. These devices are computer based and are used to control various process and equipments within a facility. PLCs control the components in the DCS and SCADA systems but they are primary components in smaller control configurations.

DCS

Distributed Control Systems consists of decentralized elements and all the processes are controlled by these elements. Human interaction is minimized so the labor costs and injuries can be reduced.

Embedded Control

In this control system, small components are attached to the industrial computer system with the help of a network and control is exercised.

SCADA

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition refers to a centralized system and this system is composed of various subsystems like Remote Telemetry Units, Human Machine Interface, Programmable Logic Controller or PLC and Communications.

—————————————–

SCADA. FDAS. HMI. FMS. PLC. PAC. DCS. RTU. SMS.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/working-on-the-scada-system-of-a-50mw-solar-power-plant-in-tarlac/

We can build you a local or remote real-time data monitoring system to jumpstart you to the 4th industrial revolution and IoT (Internet of Things).

We have done above subject for high rise/commercial building BMS and FDAS. Industrial HMI and Automation. Marine vessel instrumentation. Wind, Solar, and Biomass Power Plant SCADA in the range of 12KW up to 50MW. 

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/

Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines

Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

FAO Report: Achieving Zero Hunger Requires “Major Overhaul” of Global Food Systems


*curated information…

Challenges to food stability and availability include: sustainable intensification to meet increasing demand; ensuring a sustainable natural resource base; addressing climate change and intensification of natural hazards; and preventing transboundary threats to agriculture and food systems.

Read FAO Report.

https://remarkeet.com/blog/blog/2017/02/24/achieving-zero-hunger/

————————————–

Agriculture needs water. Food production has drought as main challenge.  A solution must anticipate the El Nino ( dry spell) all the time.

We do solar pumping system for domestic water usage or agricultural irrigation.

Up to 15HP, 98 Mtrs max. well depth, max. 60 Cu.Mtrs max flowrate, 6 inches max. well pipe dia. 

SOLAR POWERED RICE FARM IRRIGATION

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/01/22/solar-powered-farm-pumps/

COST AND RELIABILITY COMPARISON BETWEEN SOLAR AND DIESEL POWERED PUMPS 

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/02/14/a-cost-and-reliability-comparison-between%e2%80%a8solar-and-diesel-powered-pumps/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/
Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines
Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

Biogas company aims to heat homes with the power of panda poop


*curated information…

BY LINY LAMBERINKPOSTED APR 19, 2016 5:46 PM EDTLAST UPDATED APR 19, 2016 AT 8:49 PM EDT

Biogas company aims to heat homes with the power of panda poop

There’s always been something smelly east of Meadowvale Road.

But now, the stench is getting sweeter.

ZooShare – a renewable energy co-operative – broke ground Tuesday on North America’s first ever zoo-based biogas plant.

The facility is being built on three hectares of land across the street from the Toronto Zoo and is taking over its composting facility, using the 3,000 tons of waste the animals produce each year to generate power.

Poop will be mixed with 14,000 tons of local grocery store waste, and will generate energy to power 250 homes for a year.

“[It’s] really a big concrete stomach,” says ZooShare Executive Director Daniel Bida, describing how the biogas plant will operate.

“If you feed organic waste into this concrete stomach, over a period of about 30 days, methane will be produced that can be used to generate electricity.”

Bida says burning the methane gas will create some emissions, but adds this is greatly offset by the positive impact of diverting waste from the landfill, where it would produce methane gas that would be released into the atmosphere regardless.

According to ZooShare’s website, the biogas plant’s operations will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the equivalent of 10,000 tons of C02 annually. And afterwards, the waste can still be used as a nutrient-rich form of fertilizer.

——————————————-

Plan to make use of your MSW or agro-industrial organic waste to generate power or have W2E projects?

We do local turnkey biogas power plant projects. We can build what you envision with no less than the state-of-the-art technology that you will require.

Biogas Frequently Asked Questions

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/12/18/biogas-faq/

Waste to Energy. What is holding you back?

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/waste-to-energy-what-is-holding-you/

History of Anaerobic Digestion

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/a-short-history-of-anaerobic-digestion/

Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

Email: gregoriojess@yahoo.com
We do SCADA, BMS, FDAS, FMS, HMI, and Control System Integration.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/over-and-above-scada-bms-fdas-hmi/
Browse JcGreg Flipboard Magazine

https://flipboard.com/@JessGregorio?tab=magazines
Follow JcGreg WordPress Blogs

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/