Install tip: Oversize MPPT controllers in off-grid systems for more ROI


Install tip: Oversize MPPT controllers in off-grid systems for more ROI

https://www.solarpowerworldonline.com/2018/03/oversize-mppt-controllers-off-grid-systems-roi/

On running a water pump without operating cost

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2018/01/14/on-running-a-water-pump-without-operating-cost/

Solar Pump Inverter


Solar pump inverter’s main function is to convert DC power into Ac Power to drive a pump.  It adjust the output frequency in real tine to achieve the maximum power point tracking. 

Solar pumping system can greatly help agricultural irrigation ,forestry irrigation, desert control, pasture animal husbandry, water supply for islands, wastewater treatment engineering, and so many others with costly ground water operation.

2.2KW solar pump system

4kw solar pump system

15kw solar pump system

Solar Powered Water Pumping Solution

A solution to drought. Eliminate recurring expense on electricity or fuel to run a pump. 10 years warranty on solar panels, 2 years on MPPT Inverter, and 1 year for SS submersible pump. 

A DIY installation. Simple. Easy. User friendly. 

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/04/28/solar-powered-water-pump-do-away-with-fuel-and-power-cost/

For Inquiry and Request for Quotation, email me at: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave., cor. Garner Road, Ortigas Center,

San Antonio, Pasig City 1605

Philippines

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

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FINAL NOTE. HOW A MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKER REALLY WORKS. 4 of 4


Solar Pump. All About Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controllers

The Power point tracker is a high frequency DC to DC converter. They take the DC input from the solar panels, change it to high frequency AC, and convert it back down to a different DC voltage and current to exactly match the panels to the batteries. MPPT’s operate at very high audio frequencies, usually in the 20-80 kHz range. The advantage of high frequency circuits is that they can be designed with very high efficiency transformers and small components. The design of high frequency circuits can be very tricky because the problems with portions of the circuit “broadcasting” just like a radio transmitter and causing radio and TV interference. Noise isolation and suppression becomes very important.

There are a few non-digital (that is, linear) MPPT’s charge controls around. These are much easier and cheaper to build and design than the digital ones. They do improve efficiency somewhat, but overall the efficiency can vary a lot – and we have seen a few lose their “tracking point” and actually get worse. That can happen occasionally if a cloud passed over the panel – the linear circuit searches for the next best point, but then gets too far out on the deep end to find it again when the sun comes out. Thankfully, not many of these around any more.

The power point tracker (and all DC to DC converters) operates by taking the DC input current, changing it to AC, running through a transformer (usually a toroid, a doughnut looking transformer), and then rectifying it back to DC, followed by the output regulator. In most DC to DC converters, this is strictly an electronic process – no real smarts are involved except for some regulation of the output voltage. Charge controllers for solar panels need a lot more smarts as light and temperature conditions vary continuously all day long, and battery voltage changes.

Smart power trackers

All recent models of digital MPPT controllers available are microprocessor controlled. They know when to adjust the output that it is being sent to the battery, and they actually shut down for a few microseconds and “look” at the solar panel and battery and make any needed adjustments. Although not really new (the Australian company AERL had some as early as 1985), it has been only recently that electronic microprocessors have become cheap enough to be cost effective in smaller systems (less than 1 KW of panel). MPPT charge controls are now manufactured by several companies.

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Solar Powered Water Pumping Solution

A solution to drought. Eliminate recurring expense on electricity or fuel to run a pump. 10 years warranty on solar panels, 2 years on MPPT Inverter, and 1 year for SS submersible pump. 

A DIY installation. Simple. Easy. User friendly. 

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/04/28/solar-powered-water-pump-do-away-with-fuel-and-power-cost/

For Inquiry and Request for Quotation, email me at: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave., cor. Garner Road, Ortigas Center,

San Antonio, Pasig City 1605

Philippines

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Life Hacks. Techno Blogs. Follow me.

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HOW MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING WORKS.  3 of 4


Solar Pump. All About Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controllers
Here is where the optimization, or maximum power point tracking comes in. Assume your battery is low, at 12 volts. A MPPT takes that 17.6 volts at 7.4 amps and converts it down, so that what the battery gets is now 10.8 amps at 12 volts. Now you still have almost 130 watts, and everyone is happy.

Ideally, for 100% power conversion you would get around 11.3 amps at 11.5 volts, but you have to feed the battery a higher voltage to force the amps in. And this is a simplified explanation – in actual fact the output of the MPPT charge controller might vary continually to adjust for getting the maximum amps into the battery.

Above is a screen shot from the Maui Solar Software “PV-Design Pro” computer program (click on picture for full size image). If you look at the green line, you will see that it has a sharp peak at the upper right – that represents the maximum power point. What an MPPT controller does is “look” for that exact point, then does the voltage/current conversion to change it to exactly what the battery needs. In real life, that peak moves around continuously with changes in light conditions and weather.

A MPPT tracks the maximum power point, which is going to be different from the STC (Standard Test Conditions) rating under almost all situations. Under very cold conditions a 120 watt panel is actually capable of putting over 130+ watts because the power output goes up as panel temperature goes down – but if you don’t have some way of tracking that power point, you are going to lose it. On the other hand under very hot conditions, the power drops – you lose power as the temperature goes up. That is why you get less gain in summer.

MPPT’s are most effective under these conditions:

Winter, and/or cloudy or hazy days – when the extra power is needed the most.

Cold weather – solar panels work better at cold temperatures, but without a MPPT you are losing most of that. Cold weather is most likely in winter – the time when sun hours are low and you need the power to recharge batteries the most.

Low battery charge – the lower the state of charge in your battery, the more current a MPPT puts into them – another time when the extra power is needed the most. You can have both of these conditions at the same time.

Long wire runs – If you are charging a 12 volt battery, and your panels are 100 feet away, the voltage drop and power loss can be considerable unless you use very large wire. That can be very expensive. But if you have four 12 volt panels wired in series for 48 volts, the power loss is much less, and the controller will convert that high voltage to 12 volts at the battery. That also means that if you have a high voltage panel setup feeding the controller, you can use much smaller wire.

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Solar Powered Water Pumping Solution

A solution to drought. Eliminate recurring expense on electricity or fuel to run a pump. 10 years warranty on solar panels, 2 years on MPPT Inverter, and 1 year for SS submersible pump. 

A DIY installation. Simple. Easy. User friendly. 

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/04/28/solar-powered-water-pump-do-away-with-fuel-and-power-cost/

For Inquiry and Request for Quotation, email me at: gregoriojess@yahoo.com
 

Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave., cor. Garner Road, Ortigas Center,

San Antonio, Pasig City 1605

Philippines

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Life Hacks. Techno Blogs. Follow me.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/
 

 

WHAT IS MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING? 2 of 4


Solar Pump. All About Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controllers
There is some confusion about the term “tracking”:

Panel tracking – this is where the panels are on a mount that follows the sun. The most common are the Zomeworks. These optimize output by following the sun across the sky for maximum sunlight. These typically give you about a 15% increase in winter and up to a 35% increase in summer.

This is just the opposite of the seasonal variation for MPPT controllers. Since panel temperatures are much lower in winter, they put out more power. And winter is usually when you need the most power from your solar panels due to shorter days.

Maximum Power Point Tracking is electronic tracking – usually digital. The charge controller looks at the output of the panels, and compares it to the battery voltage. It then figures out what is the best power that the panel can put out to charge the battery. It takes this and converts it to best voltage to get maximum AMPS into the battery. (Remember, it is Amps into the battery that counts). Most modern MPPT’s are around 93-97% efficient in the conversion. You typically get a 20 to 45% power gain in winter and 10-15% in summer. Actual gain can vary widely depending weather, temperature, battery state of charge, and other factors.

Grid tie systems are becoming more popular as the price of solar drops and electric rates go up. There are several brands of grid-tie only (that is, no battery) inverters available. All of these have built in MPPT. Efficiency is around 94% to 97% for the MPPT conversion on those.

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Ad

Solar Powered Water Pumping Solution

A solution to drought. Eliminate recurring expense on electricity or fuel to run a pump. 10 years warranty on solar panels, 2 years on MPPT Inverter, and 1 year for SS submersible pump. 

A DIY installation. Simple. Easy. User friendly. 

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/04/28/solar-powered-water-pump-do-away-with-fuel-and-power-cost/

For Inquiry and Request for Quotation, email me at: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave., cor. Garner Road, Ortigas Center,

San Antonio, Pasig City 1605

Philippines

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Life Hacks. Techno Blogs. Follow me.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

WHAT THE HECK IS AN MPPT CHARGE CONTROLLER?  1 of 4


Solar Pump. All About Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controllers
This section covers the theory and operation of “Maximum Power Point Tracking” as used in solar electric charge controllers.

A MPPT, or maximum power point tracker is an electronic DC to DC converter that optimizes the match between the solar array (PV panels), and the battery bank or utility grid. To put it simply, they convert a higher voltage DC output from solar panels (and a few wind generators) down to the lower voltage needed to charge batteries.

(These are sometimes called “power point trackers” for short – not to be confused with PANEL trackers, which are a solar panel mount that follows, or tracks, the sun).

SO WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY “OPTIMIZE”?

Solar cells are neat things. Unfortunately, they are not very smart. Neither are batteries – in fact batteries are downright stupid. Most PV panels are built to put out a nominal 12 volts. The catch is “nominal”. In actual fact, almost all “12 volt” solar panels are designed to put out from 16 to 18 volts. The problem is that a nominal 12 volt battery is pretty close to an actual 12 volts – 10.5 to 12.7 volts, depending on state of charge. Under charge, most batteries want from around 13.2 to 14.4 volts to fully charge – quite a bit different than what most panels are designed to put out.

OK, so now we have this neat 130 watt solar panel. Catch #1 is that it is rated at 130 watts at a particular voltage and current. The Kyocera KC-130 is rated at 7.39 amps at 17.6 volts. (7.39 amps times 17.6 volts = 130 watts).

NOW THE CATCH 22

Why 130 Watts does NOT equal 130 watts

Where did my Watts go?

So what happens when you hook up this 130 watt panel to your battery through a regular charge controller?

Unfortunately, what happens is not 130 watts.

Your panel puts out 7.4 amps. Your battery is setting at 12 volts under charge: 7.4 amps times 12 volts = 88.8 watts. You lost over 41 watts – but you paid for 130. That 41 watts is not going anywhere, it just is not being produced because there is a poor match between the panel and the battery. With a very low battery, say 10.5 volts, it’s even worse – you could be losing as much as 35% (11 volts x 7.4 amps = 81.4 watts. You lost about 48 watts.

One solution you might think of – why not just make panels so that they put out 14 volts or so to match the battery?

Catch #22a is that the panel is rated at 130 watts at full sunlight at a particular temperature (STC – or standard test conditions). If temperature of the solar panel is high, you don’t get 17.4 volts. At the temperatures seen in many hot climate areas, you might get under 16 volts. If you started with a 15 volt panel (like some of the so-called “self regulating” panels), you are in trouble, as you won’t have enough voltage to put a charge into the battery. Solar panels have to have enough leeway built in to perform under the worst of conditions. The panel will just sit there looking dumb, and your batteries will get even stupider than usual.

Nobody likes a stupid battery.

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Ad

Solar Powered Water Pumping Solution

A solution to drought. Eliminate recurring expense on electricity or fuel to run a pump. 10 years warranty on solar panels, 2 years on MPPT Inverter, and 1 year for SS submersible pump. 

A DIY installation. Simple. Easy. User friendly. 

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/04/28/solar-powered-water-pump-do-away-with-fuel-and-power-cost/

For Inquiry and Request for Quotation, email me at: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Jess C. Gregorio

Sales & Marketing

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave., cor. Garner Road, Ortigas Center,

San Antonio, Pasig City 1605

Philippines

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Life Hacks. Techno Blogs. Follow me.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

Solar Powered Irrigation for Rice Paddies


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How Solar Can Save India’s Farmers

Water pumps powered by the sun could solve a host of problems for rural farmers and the nation’s power grid

SMITHSONIAN.COM
JUNE 25, 2013

Ravi Kant, a rice and wheat farmer in his 30s, lives in Bihar, just south of Nepal and one of the poorest states in India. Kant used to perform an intricate ritual when rains alone couldn’t provide enough water for his crops: He would rent a diesel pump from town, shoulder it on a bamboo sling and carry it to a corner of his property where he could drench one of his flat fields with water from an underground aquifer. Then he would move it to another quadrant, and another. “The discharge [of water] from the diesel pump was never strong,” Kant recalled. “Add to that the time and hassle to rent a van, go to the town and buy diesel.”

But life recently became much easier for Kant: His fertile acreage near the banks of the iconic river now has its own 7.5-horsepower water pump powered by six six-foot-square solar panels. Watering his fields is as simple as walking a plastic hose past the huts where the women dry cow patties for stove fuel. When the sun shines, the farmer can summon water from the ground whenever he wants, and even on cloudy winter days he can irrigate for at least two hours.

A consensus is building that India needs millions more farmers who, like Kant, run their irrigation on sunshine. The country is home to 25 million agricultural water pumps, more than anywhere on earth. Whether they draw their power from the country’s rickety power grid or from diesel-fueled generators, the pumps cause a host of problems. They are sucking aquifers dry, draining the government treasury and farmer’s pockets, and adding to the country’s burgeoning carbon emissions levels.

A growing number of government officials, aid workers and entrepreneurs believe that if any sector is ripe for solar power in India, it is the legions of agricultural irrigation pumps, because the benefits could add up so quickly.

“In my view, India should stop doing all other solar and just focus on giving farmers a solution for their needs,” said Pashupathy Gopalan, a managing director of SunEdison, an American firm that is one of India’s largest developers of big solar farms and rooftop solar panels. “The farmers will be happy, and once the farmers are happy, the politicians will be happy because the farmer tells his family how to vote.”

To know how a solar pumpset, as it’s called, can make such a difference, it’s worth taking a moment to understand the strange burden that watering crops places on the Indian economy. About 18 million of the country’s 25 million pumpsets are tied to the national electric grid. India’s planning commission estimates that farming accounts for about 15 percent of gross domestic product but the sector consumes some 25 percent of the nation’s electricity, mostly from powering irrigation pumps. Utilities provide this power at a huge loss; electricity for farmers is usually free, or nearly so, costing only a couple of pennies per kilowatt.

It’s been this way for decades, the legacy of a country that is quickly urbanizing but whose self-image — and nearly 70 percent of its population — is still rooted in the countryside. The policy comes at a high cost, both in energy and money. The power lines experience transmission losses of 30 to 40 percent on their long route to customers who pay almost nothing. “Every watt sold to a rural customer is a loss to the bottom line,” explained Srinivasan Padmanaban, a senior energy advisor to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in New Delhi.

This burden is taking its toll on the rest of India. Most state electricity boards, the rough equivalent of U.S. utilities, are operating in the red, and the nation’s power system frequently falters under the demand pressures of the fast-growing country. In July 2012, more than half of India’s population, 670 million people, experienced the world’s largest blackout ever. Smaller, rolling blackouts are common, even in some of India’s largest cities, spurred on by an outdated power grid, electricity theft, chronic shortages of fuel and the rising cost of imported coal and petroleum. Easing energy demand is a top priority.

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And if the flickering power grid is a headache for utility officers and city dwellers, it is an obstacle of another kind for the farmer, sometimes a deadly one. Farmers get electricity, but often for only a few hours a day—or, rather, the night, when no other customers need it. This means that many farmers stumble out of bed and irrigate their fields in the dark. India is home to many venomous snakes like cobras and vipers, and it is fairly common, Gopalan said, for a farmer to meet his end with a snakebite.

These exhausted farmers who depend on short bursts of free electricity are not the best stewards of the nation’s diminishing supply of groundwater. The system incentivizes the farmer to use as much water as he can when he can get it. Thus, many farmers gravitate toward crops that require flooding, like rice and wheat. But these commodities offer farmers the lowest of profit margins. Global consulting firm KPMG estimates that solar pumps, which give a farmer the leisure to pump water only when he needs it—and can see it—could increase agricultural income by 10 to 15 percent by letting farmers switch to more profitable crops such as tomatoes and potatoes.

Converting all of India’s electric water pumps to solar would appear to make imminent sense, but the economic argument for solar is even more compelling for diesel-powered pumps. Solar-powered water pumps, which include a power source and expensive electronics, currently cost upwards of $6,000, whereas a pump that runs on electricity or diesel can be had for as little as $500. That’s an enormous difference in a country with a per capita yearly income of only $1,200. Farmers who get their electricity for free would probably rather save their money and risk the cobras. But for the 7 million diesel-using farmers like Kant, most of whom have no electrical connection and have had no choice but diesel pumps, they can spend up to 35 or 40 percent of their income on diesel. And that amount is rising because the country is phasing out its subsidy on the fuel.

“The costs of running a diesel pump are very high,” said a grizzled neighbor of Kant’s, who went by the sole name of Ayodhya. As we watched water tumble onto his field from his solar-powered pumpset, Ayodhya explained, “for a farmer who owns one bigha of land [about 70 percent of an acre], the diesel pump has to be run four hours a day. The pump consumes two liters of diesel an hour. That is 320 rupees [U.S. $5.55] per hour.”

Energy subsidies, however, aren’t necessarily going away — they’re instead moving toward solar. “We see a huge market for solar pumps in India,” said G. Prasad, head of off-grid solar projects for the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, which is offering to pick up 30 percent of the cost of solar pumpsets. Ten states have also added their own subsidies. Rural energy independence appeals to local politicians who can steer money to their constituents, as well as ministerial bean counters who see a potential for savings. KPMG estimates that if the government purchased 100,000 solar pumps, India could save $53 million a year in diesel imports.

The prospect of government largesse, combined with millions of potential customers, has global solar and pump manufacturers, from SunEdison to Germany’s Lorentz to Denmark’s Grundfos, running toward the Indian market. Kant’s pump was installed by Claro Energy, an Indian startup that is competing with the big multinationals. “It’s a tremendous opportunity because of the sheer size of the country, the sheer size of the population,” said Melanie Natarajan, head of Asia-Pacific water operations for Franklin Electric, an American pump maker.

Ravi Kant couldn’t be happier with his solar-powered pump — and not just because subsidies have driven his power costs down to zero. Instead of wrestling with a diesel-powered pump in front of his cows, he adjusts the panels a few times a day to point them toward the sun, and every few days washes the dust off. “We can grow a third crop because of the solar pumps. We grow either dal or maize. Our annual income is up by about 20,000 rupees [U.S. $347] per year,” he said.

Solar panels have been known to work for two decades and more. If they do, the blue-tinted solar panels will empower another generation – Kant’s children — to water their own crops with sunshine.

Sanjoy Sanyal contributed to the reporting of this story.

Disclaimer: Pashupathy Gopalanis a distant cousin by marriage of the writer.


How to pump water for irrigation without cost.

Solar Powered Water Pumping Solution

A solution to drought. Eliminate recurring expense on electricity or fuel to run a pump. 10 years warranty on solar panels, 2 years on MPPT Inverter, and 1 year for SS submersible pump.

A DIY installation. Simple. Easy. User friendly.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/04/28/solar-powered-water-pump-do-away-with-fuel-and-power-cost/

For Inquiry and Request for Quotation, email me at: gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Jess C. Gregorio

Affiliate Marketing and Project Lead Generation Manager for the Philippine Territory

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

Make Things Better.

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/12/10/applied-technologies-to-make-things-better/

Designing and Sizing a Solar Powered Pumping System


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Pumping water without fuel or electricity cost. 

Eliminate recurring expense on electricity or fuel to run a pump. 10 years warranty on solar panels, 2 years on MPPT Inverter, and 1 year for SS submersible pump. 

A DIY installation. Simple. Easy. User friendly. 

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/2017/04/28/solar-powered-water-pump-do-away-with-fuel-and-power-cost/

Browse related information on solar powered water pumping.

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gregoriojess@yahoo.com

https://jcgregsolutions.wordpress.com/

                                     

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