Covenant


From the treatise Against Heresies 

by Saint Irenaeus, bishop

The covenant of the Lord

In the book of Deuteronomy Moses says to the people: The Lord your God made a covenant on Horeb; he made this covenant, not with your fathers but with you. Why did God not make this covenant with their fathers? Because the law is not aimed at the righteous. Their fathers were righteous: they had the power of the Decalogue implanted in their hearts and in their souls. 

That is, they loved the God who made them and did nothing unjust against their neighbor. For this reason they did not need to be admonished by written rebukes: they had the righteousness of the law in their hearts.

When this righteousness and love for God had passed into oblivion and had been extinguished in Egypt, God had necessarily to reveal himself through his own voice, out of his great love for men. He led the people out of Egypt in power, so that man might once again become God’s disciple and follower. He made them afraid as they listened, to warn them not to hold their Creator in contempt.

He fed them with manna, that they might receive spiritual food. In the book of Deuteronomy Moses says: He fed you with manna, which your fathers did not know, that you might understand that man will not live by bread alone but by every word of God coming from the mouth of God.

He commanded them to love himself and trained them to practice righteousness toward their neighbor, so that man might not be unrighteous or unworthy of God. Through the Decalogue he prepared man for friendship with himself and for harmony with his neighbor. This was to man’s advantage, though God needed nothing from man.

This raised man to glory, for it gave him what he did not have, friendship with God. But it brought no advantage to God, for God did not need man’s love. Man did not possess the glory of God, nor could he attain it by any other means than through obedience to God. This is why Moses said to the people: Choose life, that you may live and your descendants too; love the Lord your God, hear his voice and hold fast to him, for this is life for you and length of days.

This was the life that the Lord was preparing man to receive when he spoke in person and gave the words of the Decalogue for all alike to hear. These words remain with us as well; they were extended and amplified through his coming in the flesh, but not annulled.

God gave to the people separately through Moses the commandments that enslave: these were precepts suited to their instruction or their condemnation. As Moses said: The Lord commanded me at that time to teach you precepts of righteousness and of judgment. The precepts that were given them to enslave and to serve as a warning have been cancelled by the new covenant of freedom. The precepts that belong to man’s nature and to freedom and to all alike have been enlarged and broadened. Through the adoption of sons God had enabled man so generously and bountifully to know him as Father, to love him with his whole heart, and to follow his Word unfailingly.

Solar-powered pump promises to end farmers’ irrigation woes


By PTI | Updated: Mar 11, 2015, 01.51 PM IST

VADODARA: The farmers in the country can do away with their dependence on conventional forms of energy for operating pumps to water their fields as a private company has come up with a solar-energy operated pump, which will also reduce environment pollution. 

ABB India has developed a solar-powered water pump for irrigating crops with rural India facing problems in the supply of electricity and availability of diesel for operating gensets. 

“ABB solar pump drive starts automatically when there is enough sunshine and the motor connected to it begins to run the pump to draw water. 

“At sunset, the drive turns off the motor and the water flow ceases,” Vinod Raina, senior Vice President (Transformers division) at ABB India, told reporters here. 
He said that the built-in maximum power point tracking functionality enables the pump to run at maximum power using the available solar energy. 

He said that switching from use of conventional energy or diesel gensets to solar power can free up as much as 18 per cent of the electricity that can be used for other purposes. 

“As much as 18 per cent of the total electrical energy generated goes into agriculture. There are nine million diesel pump-sets in India. 

“Even if 50 per cent of these are converted to solar powered pumps, it will save 25 billion litres of diesel per year,” Raina said while claiming that the implementation of the solar pump can improve agricultural productivity to at least two crops a year in most parts of the country. 

The unreliable electricity supply in rural areas, the ABB official said, resulted not only in wastage of energy but also of water. 
“Due to the uncertain power supply, pumps are kept switched on waiting for electricity and, often unattended, lead to water being drawn out and wasted,” he said. 

Raina said that with the government having set a target of deploying 1,00,000 solar pumpsets over the next five years, states like Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat are key adopters followed closely by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. 
He said the company was working on developing an application that will allow farmers to monitor and operate these solar pumps through their mobile phones. 

“This technology is already in use in Rajasthan where the state government is using it in Public Health Engineering department, but we will have to develop our own application for these pumps,” Raina added.

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Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

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Description of a Biogas Power Plant


by Salman Zafar

A biogas plant is a decentralized energy system, which can lead to self-sufficiency in heat and power needs, and at the same time reduces environmental pollution. The components of a modern biogas (or anaerobic digestion) plant include: manure collection, anaerobic digester, effluent treatment, gas storage, and gas use/electricity generating equipment. The fresh animal manure is stored in a collection tank before its processing to the homogenization tank which is equipped with a mixer to facilitate homogenization of the waste stream. The uniformly mixed waste is passed through a macerator to obtain uniform particle size of 5-10 mm and pumped into suitable-capacity anaerobic digesters where stabilization of organic waste takes place.

In anaerobic digestion, organic material is converted to biogas by a series of bacteria groups into methane and carbon dioxide. The majority of commercially operating digesters are plug flow and complete-mix reactors operating at mesophilic temperatures. The type of digester used varies with the consistency and solids content of the feedstock, with capital investment factors and with the primary purpose of digestion.

Biogas contain significant amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas which needs to be stripped off due to its highly corrosive nature. The removal of H2S takes place in a biological desulphurization unit in which a limited quantity of air is added to biogas in the presence of specialized aerobic bacteria which oxidizes H2S into elemental sulfur.

Gas is dried and vented into a CHP unit to a generator to produce electricity and heat. The size of the CHP system depends on the amount of biogas produced daily. The digested substrate is passed through screw presses for dewatering and then subjected to solar drying and conditioning to give high-quality organic fertilizer. The press water is treated in an effluent treatment plant based on activated sludge process which consists of an aeration tank and a secondary clarifier. The treated wastewater is recycled to meet in-house plant requirements. A chemical laboratory is necessary to continuously monitor important environmental parameters such as BOD, COD, VFA, pH, ammonia, C:N ratio at different locations for efficient and proper functioning of the process.

The continuous monitoring of the biogas plant is achieved by using a remote control system such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. This remote system facilitates immediate feedback and adjustment, which can result in energy savings.

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Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

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RTU or PLC: Which is Right for You?


By David Greenfield , Director of Content, Automation World

Though programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have become dominant across industry, there are still many applications using remote terminal units (RTUs). Deciding which is right for your use is a discussion that still continues.

The question of when it’s most appropriate to use an RTU or a PLC has not faded with the continued rise of the PLC and the PAC (programmable automation controller). In fact, a member of the Automation & Control group on Facebook (the Facebook counterpart to Automation World’s LinkedIn group), recently asked this very question.

The most detailed response explained that: an RTU is a “microprocessor-controlled electronic device that interfaces objects in the physical world to a distributed control system or SCADA system by transmitting telemetry data to the system and/or altering the state of connected objects based on control messages received from the system”; and that a PLC is basically “a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes. Because the functions of RTUs and PLCs overlap, RTUs tend to be used more for wide geographic telemetry, while PLCs are best suited for local area control.”

 
Other members of the group claim that the communications abilities of current PLCs “more than equal RTUs and they’re considerably more flexible and versatile” — even in applications requiring wide geographic use.

 
Thus, the debate rages on.

 
One of the better — and simpler — explanations I have seen over the years comes from Tetragenics (a supplier of SCADA systems and smart remote units). Basically the explanation says: If you need a stand-alone controller with power for your application, a PLC is likely your best choice. But be aware that some level of programming skills will be required. If you need a device to control multiple processes, without direct intervention from a controller or master, an RTU can provide many of the advanced control functions needed, as it is basically a direct interface between the field sensors, actuators and a central control unit.

 
Like most answers either/or questions, the answer always seems to be “it depends.”

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Jess C.Gregorio

InSpecIT Inc.

Unit 719/722 City & Land Mega Plaza Bldg.

ADB Ave. cor. Garnet Road, Ortigas Center

San Antonio, Pasig City, Philippines 1605

gregoriojess@yahoo.com

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